Seminar Series

An Enlightened Society Full of Stereotypes: A Case of Early Modern England, c. 1550-1750

日時
Thursday, 24 November 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar  登録はこちら
Zoomのリンクは、登録後におしらせします。
言語
English
登壇者
  • Koji Yamamoto Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Recent events like the Brexit referendum and the election of Donald Trump unleashed a wide range of stereotypes, including stereotypes of immigrants, of African Americans, of conservative southerners and of autocrats. The proliferation of stereotypes, however, is never a uniquely modern phenomenon. It was also a defining feature of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England, what Jürgen Habermas once viewed as the origin of the public sphere. What does progress mean if stereotypes spread so widely today, as they did in the early modern period? Early modern people often appealed to reason and were preoccupied with the ‘advancement of learning’ and the promise of enlightenment. Yet that did not prevent stereotypes from spreading. Stereotyping was so pervasive and foundational to social life, and yet so liable to escalation, that collective engagements with it often ended up perpetuating the very processes of stereotyping. Engaging critically with recent works in social psychology and sociology, I explore broader implications of this finding for social sciences in general and Japan studies in particular.

登壇者について

Koji Yamamoto is an Associate Professor of Business History at the University of Tokyo. He is the author of Taming capitalism before its triumph (Oxford, 2018), and has also published articles in Historical Journal and English Historical Review. He is a founder of the Japanese grassroots organization Historians’ Workshop, a platform for preparing Japan-based early-career historians for a global academic arena. This talk draws on the recent volume of essay he has edited, ‘Stereotypes and Stereotyping in Early Modern England’.His next book project is a history of the South Sea Bubble, the first stock price bubble in history.

Seminar Series

Japan: The Harbinger State

日時
Thursday, 17 November 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar  登録はこちら
Zoomのリンクは、登録後におしらせします。
言語
English
登壇者
  • Phillip Lipscy Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo and Department of Political Science, University of Toronto
司会
  • Kenneth Mori McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

Why study Japan? Research on contemporary Japanese politics and foreign policy faces headwinds from the relative geopolitical decline of Japan and scholars skeptical about single-country studies. An overview of Japanese politics publications in English-language journals over the past four decades suggests the subfield remains active and robust. However, there is still room to grow. I argue that Japan is a harbinger state, which experiences many challenges before others in the international system. As such, studying Japan can inform both scholars and policymakers about the political challenges other countries are likely to confront in the future. In turn, scholarship on Japan offers a critical opportunity to develop theoretical insights, assess early empirical evidence, and offer policy lessons about emerging challenges and the political contestation surrounding them. I consider the reasons why Japan so often emerges as a harbinger across issue areas and suggest areas for ongoing scholarly attention.

登壇者について

Phillip Y. Lipscy is a professor of political science at the University of Toronto, where he is also Chair in Japanese Politics and Global Affairs and the Director of the Centre for the Study of Global Japan at the Munk School of Global Affairs & Public Policy. In addition, he is cross-appointed as a professor at the Faculty of Law at the University of Tokyo. His research addresses substantive topics such as international cooperation, international organizations, the politics of energy and climate change, international relations of East Asia, and the politics of financial crises. He has also published extensively on Japanese politics and foreign policy.

Seminar Series

A study of the regulation of individual behavior during a pandemic crisis in Japan

日時
Thursday, 27 October 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar  登録はこちら
Zoomのリンクは、登録後におしらせします。
言語
English
登壇者
  • Naomi Aoki Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, the University of Tokyo
イベント概要

This presentation is based on a study conducted in 2020, which examined whether a stay-at-home order with penalties would be an effective measure for regulating public behavior during a pandemic lockdown in Japan. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities around the world have taken measures to limit civil liberties by means of stay-at-home orders, with penalties for infractions. In contrast, at the time of 2020 when this study was conducted, Japan had avoided legislating sanctions and instead sought voluntary cooperation from the public. Such a self-restraint request could be expected to deter public activity in Japan, whose society is known for conformity and social order so penalties might not be necessary. Nevertheless, the study found, through an online scenario-based experiment, that adding penalties still made a positive difference in the intention to stay home, especially in places with high infection rates, such as Tokyo. This study contributes to a broader discourse on what sort of measures can be taken to encourage public cooperation and compliance and on how to balance civil liberties with national health policies.

登壇者について

Naomi Aoki (Ph.D., Public Administration) is an associate professor of public management in the Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP) at the University of Tokyo (since April 2020), and was formerly an assistant professor at the National University of Singapore (August 2011- March 2020). As a researcher, Aoki addresses emerging issues in public administration and management through an interdisciplinary fusion of approaches. Her works have appeared in journals, such as Cities, Computers in Human Behavior, Government Information Quarterly, Habitat International, and Public Management Review.

Seminar Series

Adoption and Reproduction in Tokugawa Japan: Family strategies in a society of low fertility

日時
Thursday, 7 July 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Satomi Kurosu Faculty of Global Studies, Reitaku University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Adoption is an important strategy for families without biological children to secure a successor. Adoption also serves as a means to redistribute a surplus of sons for families with many children. This study utilizes a longitudinal database from early-modern Japan, providing a rare opportunity to analyze how adoption practices were used and how they relate to reproduction. The data record is based on Ninbetsu-aratame-cho, annual population registers from 1716-1870 in north-eastern Japan. Commoners suffered a series of famines and crop failures, the hardship of which manifested in declining population and low fertility. Applying the method of event history analysis, this study reveals how the economic condition of the villages as well as the socioeconomic status of households and co-residents influenced a couple’s decision of having children versus adopting. The empirical study of a society with low fertility will make us consider the continuity and change of Japanese families throughout the centuries.

登壇者について

Satomi Kurosu is a Professor of Sociology and the Director of the Population and Family History Project (PFHP) at Reitaku University. Her work covers the area of historical demography and family sociology, with a focus on household and life course studies in early modern Japan. She was a key member of the Eurasia Project, led by Akira Hayami (1929-2019), the founder of Japanese historical demography. As the inheritor of Hayami’s large collection of historical population materials, Prof. Kurosu continues to archive, construct and analyze population records from pre-census Japan. Her work includes international collaborations, Similarity in Difference: Marriage in Europe and Asia (MIT 2014).

Seminar Series

Do Gendered Expectations Help or Hinder the Evaluations of Women Politicians?

日時
Thursday, 30 June 2022 | 16:00 - 17:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Seiki Tanaka An assistant professor of international relations at the Department of International Relations and International Organization, University of Groningen
司会
  • Rieko Kage Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo
イベント概要

Do voters in advanced democracies evaluate women politicians more critically than men counterparts? Some scholars find that women politicians have to endure more scrutiny with regards to their qualifications than their male counterparts and are punished more harshly in case of scandals. Yet, a growing body of the literature also suggests that women and men politicians are equally evaluated and, in some cases, women politicians are viewed even more positively than men. We argue that the mixed findings are in part due to the existence of competitive mechanisms through which gendered stereotypes affect the evaluations of women politicians. We examine the argument by using a survey experiment in Japan.

登壇者について

Seiki Tanaka is an assistant professor of international relations at the Department of International Relations and International Organization (IRIO), University of Groningen. His research interest lies in exploring and researching the processes and mechanisms underlying social conflicts and cooperation. In particular, he examines the microfoundations of social diversity and conflicts and how different groups of people can co-exist within a society in an era of globalization and technological advancement.

Seminar Series

Bank Resolution Regime after the Global Financial Crisis

日時
Friday, 24 June 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Tomoaki Hayashi Ph.D., Graduate Schools for Law and Politics Faculty of Law, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Masayuki Tamaruya Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, the University of Tokyo
イベント概要

“Banks live globally but die local”, as described by former Bank of England Governor Marvin King, banking activities are increasingly globalized beyond national borders, while legal frameworks remain separate and distinct at the sovereign level including banking licenses, deposit insurance, and insolvency laws. In the wake of the global financial crisis, international discussions arose toward ending the Too-Big-to-Fail (TBTF) issue. This led to the establishment of international standards for bank resolution, notably “Key Attributes of Effective Resolution Regimes for Financial Institution” (Key Attributes). The purpose of this seminar is to give an overview of the post-financial crisis international debate over the cross-border banking resolution and analyze the remaining issues and challenges for effective cross-border bank resolution.

登壇者について

Tomoaki Hayashi is a recent graduate of a Ph.D. in Law at the University of Tokyo. He currently serves as an economist in the Monetary and Capital Markets Department of the IMF. Prior to joining to the IMF, he worked for the Financial Services Agency in Japan (FSA), with responsibility for international discussion for bank resolution. He has a Master’s degree in Public Administration (MPA) from Columbia University and also a Master’s degree in Law (LL.M.) from the University of Michigan. He has numerous publications, including Japan’s chapter in the “Research Handbook on Cross-Border Bank Resolution” (joint with Hideki Kanda, edited by Matthias Haentjens and Bob Wessels, Edward & Elgar, 2019). He also has experience serving as an external lecturer at Keio University.

Seminar Series

How Incumbent Politicians Respond to the Enactment of a Programmatic Policy: Evidence from Snow Subsidies

日時
Thursday, 23 June 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Amy Catalinac Assistant professor of Department of Politics, New York University
司会
  • Kenneth Mori McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

More than fifty studies have examined the programmatic incumbent support hypothesis, which posits that once enacted, programmatic policies increase electoral support for the incumbent. Despite the careful attention to causal inference in this work, empirical findings have been strikingly inconsistent. We make the case that these inconsistent results are likely explained by incumbents’ strategic responses to the enactment of a programmatic policy. Specifically, incumbents have good reasons to distribute different amounts of non-programmatic goods to voters who do and do not receive a programmatic policy. To examine this conjecture, we turn to the case of Japan, where municipalities receive allocations of non-programmatic goods and vary in their eligibility for a programmatic policy (a snow subsidy) according to factors that are plausibly exogenous to voting behavior. Using a geographic regression discontinuity design, we find that municipalities receiving the programmatic policy receive systematically more non-programmatic goods than municipalities that do not.

登壇者について

Amy Catalinac is an Assistant Professor of Politics at New York University. She is a scholar of electoral systems, distributive politics, and contemporary Japanese politics. She earned her Ph.D. at Harvard University. Her first project examined how electoral systems influence politicians’ policy priorities and ideological positions. This research appears in the American Political Science Review, Journal of Politics, and in her first book, Electoral Reform and National Security in Japan (Cambridge University Press). Her second project examines how lawmakers use geographically-targeted spending to increase their re-election chances. This research appears in World Politics, Comparative Political Studies, and Electoral Studies.

Seminar Series

How to manage Sovereignty Restriction: Japan’s experience of the 19th century “Unequal Treaty” and postwar Japan-US Security Treaty

日時
Thursday, 26 May 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Kaoru Iokibe Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, University of Tokyo
司会
  • Masayuki Tamaruya Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

Despite prewar modernization and imperialism and postwar economic growth, Japanese diplomacy has long suffered from a sense of victimization. The sentiment derives from “Unequal Treaties” thrust upon Japan in the mid-nineteenth century. Japanese citizens relived the experience with the US-Japan Security Treaty after World War II, as incidents arose between Japanese citizens and American soldiers in Japan. This talk examines little known tactics used by Japanese officials to restore some sovereignty under both the “Unequal Treaties” and the US-Japan Security Alliance. How might we adjust the alliance to best fit the challenges of twenty-first century East Asia?

登壇者について

Kaoru Iokibe is Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, University of Tokyo, and is currently an Academic Associate at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. He has a PhD in Law from Tokyo University and focuses on the political and international history of modern Japan. His first book examined opposition politics in latter nineteenth/early twentieth-century Japan (2003). His second book highlighted the latter nineteenth-century revision of “unequal treaties” and restoration of Japanese sovereignty (2010, English translation forthcoming). Recently he has begun investigating postwar US-Japan relations and the history of political lies, the latter resulting in the publication of his third book, Political History of Deception: The Insincere Politics of a Sincere Society (2020).

Seminar Series

Welfare Reform and Life Satisfaction in Japan

日時
Thursday, 12 May 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Hiroshi Ono Professor of Human Resource Management at Hitotsubashi University Business School and Affiliated Professor of Sociology at Texas A&M University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Whether economic growth improves the human lot is a matter of conditions. We focus on Japan, a country which shifted in the 1990s from a pattern of rampant economic growth and stagnant well-being, to one of modest growth and increasing well-being. We discuss concurrent policy reforms and analyse the changes in well-being. In particular, we assess whether the correlates of the increase in well-being are consistent with those expected from the reforms. We apply Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition to World Values Survey data in 1990 and 2010. Results show that improved conditions for the elderly, parents of young children and women, that is the primary groups targeted by the reforms, correlate with well-being increases during this time period. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social safety nets can make economic growth compatible with sustained increases in well-being.

登壇者について

Hiroshi Ono (Ph.D., University of Chicago) is Professor of Human Resource Management at Hitotsubashi University Business School and Affiliated Professor of Sociology at Texas A&M University. He studies demographic change and labor market dynamics in Japan. He has also published extensively on digital inequality and social implications of the Internet. He is a frequent contributor for Japanese and global news media, both print and broadcast. He is the author of Redistributing Happiness: How Social Policies Shape Life Satisfaction (with K.S. Lee, Praeger, 2016). His work has been published in the American Sociological Review, Asian Business & Management, Oxford Economic Papers, Social Forces, and Social Science Quarterly, among others.

Seminar Series

Gender Gaps in the Labor Market in Japan

日時
Thursday, 17 March 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Shintaro Yamaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Economics, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Japan ranked 120th among 156 countries in the gender gap rankings in 2021. Focusing on gender gaps in the labor market, I review how they evolved in the last few decades and discuss how policies can narrow the gender gaps. Although the progress may be slow, the gender gaps have been steadily narrowing in the last few decades. Indeed, prime-age women’s labor force participation rate in Japan has been higher than in the U.S. since 2015. While many factors seem to have contributed to this progress, I show empirical evidence that parental leave and childcare policies significantly increased women’s labor supply. Unfortunately, the narrowing gender gaps stalled because of the COVID-19 pandemic that hurt women disproportionately. I argue that promoting men’s participation in childcare and household chores is the key to further narrowing the gender gap in the labor market in Japan.

登壇者について

Shintaro Yamaguchi is a professor in the Faculty of Economics at the University of Tokyo. His research interest includes labor economics, the economics of the family, and the economics of education. He is also a co-editor of Japanese Economic Review and affiliated with CREPE and CEDEP at UTokyo and CReAM at University College London. He received a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2006.

Seminar Series

Convention, Protest, or Violence? Explaining Tactical Choices in Contentious Political Events around the World

日時
Thursday, 24 February 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Takeshi Wada Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Contentious political events—such as the collapses of socialist regimes around 1990, the Zapatista uprising in Mexico in 1994, the Arab Spring around 2010, and the Black Lives Matter movement since 2014—often catch us by surprise. Why do people use conventional tactics such as petitioning, voting, and lobbying to make claims at times, go out to protest publicly at other times, and even resort to violence on still other occasions? It appears that people’s tactical choices are totally unpredictable, but the social movement literature suggests the contrary: their choices are highly predictable because these are dependent upon people’s familiarity with the tactics. In a word, people cannot perform if they do not know how. This presentation explores such a cultural hypothesis about contentious tactics and repertoires and asks to what degree we can explain and predict tactical patterns. It conducts a cross-national comparison of tactical patterns using a data set of 10 million events worldwide, reported by Reuters, between 1990 and 2004.

登壇者について

Takeshi Wada is a Professor in the Department of Area Studies and Director of the Latin American and Iberian Network for Academic Collaboration (LAINAC) at The University of Tokyo. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Columbia University in 2003. His area of specialization includes political sociology, social movements, sociology of development, and Latin American Studies. Dr. Wada has served as a Visiting Student at El Colegio de México (2000-2001), as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University (2003-2005), and as a Visiting Scholar at the Jack W. Peltason Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California Irvine (2019).

Seminar Series

Current Japanese Sovereign Debt Situation and Policies to Mitigate a Crisis Triggered by Its Debt

日時
Thursday, 3 February 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Michinao Okachi Associate Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Rieko Kage Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

Many governments in advanced countries including Japan accumulate a large amount of sovereign debt. The IMF projects that the average sovereign debt-to-GDP ratio of advanced countries in 2021 will reach 123%, which is almost as same as the level after WWII. In terms of the Japanese case, many researchers estimate that its sovereign debt-to-GDP ratio will keep increasing because of high social security costs and interest payments. If this ratio is on the divergent path, it would not be sustainable for good and an economic crisis might be caused in the future. It will be beneficial to obtain a policy to mitigate the economic damage triggered by high public debt. He introduces several policies that the Japanese government can take when a sovereign debt crisis happens in Japan. Then, he explains his and prior research what kind of policy should the government take to minimize its effect in Japan.

登壇者について

Michinao Okachi (Ph.D. in economics, Australian National University) is an Associate Professor of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo. He is also a visiting associate professor at Tohoku University. He has a wide range of interests in macroeconomics such as international economics, public finance, monetary policy, inequality, and environmental economics. He is currently studying sovereign debt crises, global warming effects on the economy, and COVID-19 infections in universities. Some projects are funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and government-sponsored agents.

Seminar Series

Retirement Transition and its Outcome in Japan

日時
Thursday, 13 January 2022 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Masaaki Mizuochi Professor, Faculty of Policy Studies, Nanzan University
司会
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

Previous studies have not paid much attention to growing heterogeneity in the nature of retirement. Retirement does not always entail a clean departure from a career job and full withdrawal from the labor force but is often a complex process involving the gradual transition from full-time career employment to full retirement. Understanding the various retirement transitions is substantially important in the context of population aging, labor force shortages, changing pension policy, changing family environment, and growing poverty/inequality. Using a Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Elderly Persons 2005–2019 collected in Japan, we classify the pattern of retirement transition by sequence analysis and examine the relationship between retirement transition type and individual attributes. Moreover, we estimate the effect of the pattern of retirement transition on some outcomes including health, subjective well-being, and economic condition in retirement life.

登壇者について

Masaaki Mizuochi is a Professor of Faculty of Policy Studies, Nanzan
University. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Tohoku University.
After his graduate study, he worked as an associate Professor at Mie
University in 2006-2013. He works in the area of labor economics, family
economics, demography, and gerontology. His most recent work is
“Retirement type and cognitive functioning in Japan” (with James Raymo),
Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social
Sciences, forthcoming. He is currently working on a retirement
trajectory and its effect on health in Japan.

Seminar Series

Property Regimes, Religious Power, and State Formation: Modern Transformation of the East Asian Region

日時
Thursday, 25 November 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Kentaro Matsubara Professor, Graduate School of Law and Politics, the University of Tokyo
司会
  • Kenneth Mori MCELWAIN Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

This presentation focuses on the relationships between the protection of property and the formation of the state in Tokugawa Japan and Qing China, highlighting the differences in the roles of what we might call religious beliefs. The protection of the private property is seen as a basic function of the modern sovereign state. However, before the state systems of China and Japan were reformulated into modern sovereign states, the relationships between state bureaucracy and property regimes functioning at the level of local communities greatly differed in the two societies. This was partly due to different relationships between state bureaucracy and local communities. The difference in the formation of local communities was tightly connected to a difference in the roles of religious beliefs. Moreover, such differences in traditional social formation would influence the different ways in which China and Japan would integrate themselves into the Westphalian system of sovereign states in the 19th century.

登壇者について

Kentaro Matsubara (LL.B. Tokyo, D.Phil. Oxford) is a Professor of Legal History at the University of Tokyo. He works in the intersecting area of legal history and comparative law, focusing on property regimes and state structures in East Asia. His most recent works include: ‘East, East and West: Comparative Law and the Historical Processes of Legal Interaction in China and Japan’ (2019) 66(4) American Journal of Comparative Law. He is currently working on a manuscript on Law of the Ancestors: Lineage Property-Holding and Social Structures in 19th Century South China. He has held visiting appointments at Columbia Law School, the University of Hong Kong, the National University of Singapore, and Yale University.

Seminar Series

Social Consequences of the New Educational Assortative Mating in Japan

日時
Thursday, 11 November 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Setsuya Fukuda Senior Researcher, National Institute of Population and Social Security Research
司会
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

A recent study shows that the negative educational gradient in women’s marriage in Japan has been reversed since 2005 and turned positive around 2013. The shift in educational gradient is brought by a decline in the marriage rates of homogamous marriages among less-educated women and an increase in the marriage rates of hypogamous marriages among highly educated women. While the consequences of this shift are important in understanding the mechanism of social inequalities in Japan, no systematic study has been conducted yet. By using nationally representative survey data, this study shows first descriptive results on how 1) the process of marriage, 2) economic and domestic role sharing, 3) family and gender values, 4) couple relationship and 5) fertility desire/outcome differ by educational pairings among Japanese married couples, and evaluates possible outcomes of the emerging new marriage pattern in Japan.

登壇者について

Setsuya Fukuda is a Researcher at the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, where he conducts demographic research on the inter-relationships between gender, family formation, and family policy. He received his Ph.D. in economics from Meiji University. After his graduate study, he worked as a researcher at Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany in 2008-2011. His current research focuses on gender role division, educational assortative mating, fertility, and intergenerational transfers in international comparative settings, looking, particularly, how Japan’s gender structure and intergenerational relations are going to change in relation to population decline and new family policies.

Seminar Series

The Politics of the Pandemic in Asia

日時
Wednesday, 27 October 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Jeff Kingston Professor, Asian Studies, History, Temple University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCSJ Director
イベント概要

The Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak since 2020 has had a variety of consequences, exacting a high death toll, swamping medical systems, derailing economic growth and saddling governmentsThe Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak since 2020 has had a variety of consequences, exacting a high death toll, swamping medical systems, derailing economic growth and saddling governments with massive debts. The pandemic has also had significant political consequences, facilitating democratic backsliding, shoring up authoritarian regimes, eroding digital and media freedoms and downsizing political leaders. In Japan, for example, PM Abe and Suga lost public trust due to perceptions they mismanaged the outbreak. Regional tensions have escalated due to intense public relations campaigns to assign blame and claim credit from vaccine diplomacy.

登壇者について

Jeff Kingston is Director of Asian Studies and professor of history at Temple University Japan where he has taught since 1987. He has written and edited a dozen books on Japan and Asia, including Press Freedom in Japan (2017), The Politics of Religion, Nationalism and Identity in Asia (2019), Japan (2019) and Press Freedom in Asia (2020). He is co-editor of Japan’s Foreign Relations in Asia (2018) and the forthcoming Heisei Japan in Retrospect (2021). He also edited a special issue in 2020 for the Asia Pacific Journal Japan Focus on the Pandemic in Asia.

Seminar Series

Clusters: Locations, Ecosystems, and Opportunity

日時
Wednesday, 6 October 2021 | 9:00am - 10:00am (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Jon Metzler Lecturer, the Haas School of Business, the University of California, Berkeley
司会
  • Tetsuji Okazaki Professor, Graduate School of Economics, the University of Tokyo
イベント概要

Clusters – or, more broadly, the economics of geography – has been topic of interest for decades, and indeed, Paul Krugman won his Nobel for his research on the subject! And in Japan, clusters have been viewed as essential for regional revitalization (地方創生). Remote work, and the Return to Work, adds a new wrinkle to the subject. Can cities that have not been able to replicate more successful clusters benefit from the pandemic and hybrid work?

登壇者について

Jon Metzler is Lecturer at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, where he teaches on competitive strategy; strategy for the networked economy; international business; and clusters at the undergraduate and MBA levels.He is also founder of Blue Field Strategies, a consulting firm helping infrastructure clients accelerate service innovation and develop innovation ecosystems.He completed his MBA/MA-Asian Studies at the Haas School of Business. There he co founded the Berkeley Asia Business Conference (now the Bridge Conference), and authored a thesis comparing the innovation ecosystem in Silicon Valley and Japan. He is a member of the board of directors for the Japan Society of Northern California.

Seminar Series

THE FUTURE OF UNPAID WORK: How Could Automation Transform Time Spent on Housework and Care Work in the UK and Japan?

日時
Wednesday, 15 September 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Ekaterina Hertog Research Fellow, Department of Sociology, Oxford University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Unpaid household work is a major activity that impacts economic and social well-being. It is essential for human reproduction and enables all other forms of work. Recent debates about the “future of work” have engaged with the impact of technology on labour from various perspectives but have yet to address unpaid labour. This paper addresses this gap by focusing on two questions: First, what is the likelihood that various types of unpaid work will be automated? Second, what is the likely impact of such automation on time savings and gender equality, notably by facilitating female participation in the paid labour market? We use three established estimates of the likelihood of automation of paid work occupations as proxies for the future likelihood of automation of similar housework and care work activities. We specifically match paid work occupations with a harmonized list of 19 housework and care work activities in UK and Japanese national time use data. This matching enables us to simulate several plausible scenarios of how automating a variety of unpaid work tasks may impact the unpaid workloads across gender and age groups. We find that most unpaid work activities are distributed within a range of 50 to 85 per cent across the two different automation likelihood scores. We analyse how the likely automation of these tasks is to decrease women’s daily unpaid workload. We also run a simulation to investigate whether the reduction of the domestic load is sufficient for men and women currently outside of the labour market to take on full-time or part-time paid work. We estimate that automation could free 1.9-2.4% of women in Japan and 0.4-0.8% in the UK to take up full-time employment and 5.4-7.0% of Japanese women and 3.7-4.9% of British women to take on part-time jobs. The impact for men is much smaller than that for women, except for the potential full-time employment which is higher for British men compared to British women. The above is just one illustration of how labour-saving technology in the household can increase individuals’ time use choices. Women may also choose to spend the newly available time to sleep more, develop their human capital, have more rest, etc. Our broader argument, therefore, is that automation could bring about increased personal choice which can lead to greater well-being.

登壇者について

Dr Hertog’s research interests lie at the intersection of family sociology and digital sociology. She leads the ESRC-funded DomesticAI project that aims to scope new technologies’ potential to free up time now locked into unpaid domestic labour and measure how willing people are to introduce these technologies into their private lives. Ekaterina is also a research fellow at the GenTime research project, investigating gender differences in time use in East Asia. Ekaterina’s time use research looks at factors that impact the gender balance in the domestic division of labour, associations between children’s time use patterns and their natal family characteristics, and gender differences in time use at old age.

Ekaterina’s earlier research includes a study of never-married single mothers in Japan that provides an in-depth analysis of Japanese women’s decision-making on childbearing issues and the related value systems. It was published as a book by Stanford University Press titled ‘Tough Choices: Bearing an Illegitimate Child in Contemporary Japan’. Ekaterina also used customer data from one of the largest Japanese marriage agencies to analyse partner search processes, identifying the social factors that drive individual success and failure on the Japanese marriage market.

Seminar Series

Transnational Migration and Ethnic Business Involution: the Case of Indian-Nepali Restaurants in Japan

日時
Wednesday, 14 July 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Gracia Liu-Farrer Professor, Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Researchers investigating immigrants’ economic practices celebrate ethnic entrepreneurship as an alternative socioeconomic mobility strategy. Immigrants seize emerging market opportunities and utilize ethnic resources to achieve economic advancement when their entry into the mainstream labor market is blocked by language barriers or discrimination. Ethnic business can be involuted, however, leading to excessive internal competition, diminishing productivity and co-ethnic exploitation. This study uses the case of Nepalese immigrants’ restaurant business in Japan to illustrate the characteristics and detriments of such involution. This study examines the transnational process that creates such an ethnic business. It explores the role of the immigration regime, the migration industry, and sociocultural characteristics of the immigrant community in shaping such an involuted ethnic business. It argues that an involuted ethnic business creates a situation of transnational precarity in which not only do immigrant workers have little means to achieve social and economic mobility in the host society but might also destabilize the socioeconomic foundation of the sending society.

登壇者について

Gracia Liu-Farrer is Professor at the Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies and Director of Institute of Asian Migration at Waseda University, Japan. Her research examines immigrants’ economic, social and political practices in Japan, and the global mobility of students and professional migrants. She has authored books Labor Migration from China to Japan: International Students, Transnational Migrants (Routledge, 2011), Handbook of Asian Migrations (co-edited with Brenda Yeoh, Routledge, 2018), and Immigrant Japan: Mobility and Belonging in an Ethno-nationalist Society (Cornell University Press, 2020). She has also published over 50 book chapters and journal articles in leading migration and area studies journals.

Seminar Series

Contested Skill Regime and Divergent Migration Infrastructure: Comparing the Recruitment of Foreign Care Workers in Japan and Taiwan

日時
Wednesday, 30 June 2021 | 9:00am - 10:00am (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Pei-Chia Lan Distinguished Professor, Department of Sociology, National Taiwan University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Recent scholars have problematized the social construction of skills and competency in labor migration policies and governance. The formation of skill regime is especially ambivalent in the sector of migrant care work, characterized by feminization, racialization, and familialism. This talk examines the divergence of migration policies and infrastructure in two major receiving countries in East Asia. Taiwan and Japan, both facing population aging and labor shortage, have nevertheless recruited foreign caregivers in distinct ways. Taiwan started the guest worker policy in the early 1990s and most care workers are recruited via for-profit brokers and placed at home. Only recently did Japan widen the gate for migrant caregivers through multiple tracks, including EPA (Economic Partnership Agreement) candidates, students, trainees, and “specified skills visa” workers; all of them are employed by care facilities and prohibited from working at private households. The comparison demonstrates how receiving states and migrant brokers co-participate in the formation of global care chains through the practice of recruitment, training, and visa documentation.

登壇者について

Pei-Chia Lan is Distinguished Professor of Sociology, Associate Dean of College of Social Sciences, and Director of Global Asia Research Center at National Taiwan University. She was a Yenching-Radcliffe fellow at Harvard University, a Fulbright scholar at New York University, a visiting professor at the Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Kyoto University, and Tubingen University, and a postdoctoral fellow at UC Berkeley. Her major publications include Global Cinderellas: Migrant Domestics and Newly Rich Employers in Taiwan (Duke 2006, Distinguished Book Award from the American Sociological Association and ICAS Book Prize) and Raising Global Families: Parenting, Immigration, and Class in Taiwan and the US (Stanford 2018).

Seminar Series

Infectious Diseases & Management: A Retrospective Look at Japanese Society before World War II

日時
Wednesday, 12 May 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Takashi Shimizu Professor, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

In Japan (as well as in other countries) before World War II, people had been suffered from infectious diseases – such as the Spanish flu, Tuberculosis (TB), or Dysentery and resulting high risks of losing their lives, health or money. Japanese companies as well as their stakeholders – such as employees, consumers and shareholders – had to cope with such risks and a future uncertainty caused by them. In this seminar, I will investigate how they dealt with such risks and uncertainty, and try to show that they built mutual trusts and established cooperative relationships to manage such risks and uncertainty. I will also discuss what are lessons we can learn from history to survive in the era of COVID-19.

登壇者について

Takashi Shimizu (Ph.D. in economics, The University of Tokyo) is Professor of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo. He is a scholar of management and business history who is specialized in corporate systems and interactions between legal systems and corporate behaviors. Recently he published a book titled “感染症と経営:戦前日本企業は「死の影」といかに 向き合ったか (Infectious Diseases and Management: How Japanese Companies coped with the Shadow of Death before WWII)” from Chuo-Keizaisha Publishing.

Seminar Series

“Premodern Japanese Studies” and Public Scholarship

日時
Wednesday, 28 April 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Christina Laffin Associate Professor & Canada Research Chair in Premodern Japanese Literature and Culture, University of British Columbia
司会
  • Mao Wada Researcher, Humanities Center, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

This lecture will offer an overview of “Premodern Japanese Studies” in Canada and the US and an introduction to projects undertaken as “Public Humanities” initiatives. I will focus on the positioning of Japan and the Humanities at institutions in Canada, the US, and Japan and scholarly responses to perceived threats to the Humanities. How has the study of premodern Japan transformed over the past century and how is this linked to institutional structures and approaches such as Japanology, Japan(ese) studies, and transnational studies? How have scholars of premodern Japan tied their work to the influence of popular culture and political assertions of soft power? What potential is there for the “Public Humanities” framework to transform boundaries between disciplines or transcend traditional delineations between academic and public audiences. And can a better understanding of these issues offer any strategies for some of challenges Humanities scholars may face in Japan?

登壇者について

Christina Laffin researches diaries, tales, poetry, and travel writing by women in premodern Japan. She has written about the life of the medieval poet Nun Abutsu, coedited a bilingual book on nō drama, and coordinated the editing of the multi-volume anthology Gender and Japanese History. She recently collaborated with colleague Ross King and six graduate students to translate Saito Mareshi’s Kanbunkyaku to kindai Nihon. Current projects include a series of short videos on premodern Japan, a textbook on Japanese poetry, and a collaborative, illustrated collection on birth, life, and death in 1103 based on the courtier journal Chūyūki.

Seminar Series

Moving Towards Vaccine Confidence for HPV Vaccine in Japan Analysis and Proposals

日時
Wednesday, 14 April 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Keiko Kunitoki MD, MPH
  • Masafumi Funato MD, MPH
  • Makiko Mitsunami MD
  • Takahiro Kinoshita MD, MPH
  • Michael R. Reich PhD
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Vaccine hesitancy is a growing concern in global public health, and illustrates serious problems arising from lack of social trust. We analyzed Japan’s human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine crisis, which started with a rapid decline in the vaccination rate from approximately 70% to less than 1% and lasting until now, using a framework for examining barriers to access and use of health technologies according to four categories: architecture, availability, affordability, and adoption. Significant problems were identified in the architecture of the policy-making process, public information availability, adoption of evidence in decision-making body, knowledge and confidence among providers, and social trust from end-users. We propose a series of actions for key stakeholders (national government, municipalities, professional associations, politicians, civil society, and mass media). Through this case, we discuss how to build mutual trust, which is required to increase social trust in the vaccine and thereby regain vaccine confidence and reduce preventable deaths.

登壇者について
Keiko Kunitoki, MD, MPH

Is a current research fellow of Psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School (HMS) and a graduate of Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). Her interest in preventive medicine has brought her to the main field investigating the gene-environment interaction on neurodevelopment, and also research activity on vaccine confidence launched as HPV-J (Harvard society for Promoting Vaccination in Japan).

Masafumi Funato, MD, MPH

is a family physician specializing in global health. Prior to Harvard, he worked as a health program manager at one of the national public donor agencies in Japan and managed implementation projects using a public-private partnership structure in Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr. Funato holds an MPH in Global Health from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Makiko Mitsunami, MD

is a Japanese obstetrician and gynecologist and a 2nd-year MMSc student at HMS, researching impacts of diet on fertility with Dr.Jorge E. Chavarro at the nutritional and environmental epidemiology department at HSPH. She is a co-founder of the HPV vaccine promotion group (Minpapi Association).

Takahiro Kinoshita, MD, MPH

is an emergency physician from Osaka, Japan. He has been engaged in social marketing/healthcare promotion using a verified account on Twitter. He is a co-founder of the two vaccine promotion groups: HPV vaccine (Minpapi Association) and COVID vaccine (CoV-Navi).

Michael R. Reich, PhD

is Taro Takemi Research Professor of International Health Policy at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He has many publications on health system strengthening and reform, access to medicines and pharmaceutical policy, and the political economy of policy-making processes, and has been engaged with health policy issues in Japan for five decades. For more information see:
https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/michael-reich/

Seminar Series

「世界三大美人」言説と現代日本のルッキズム

日時
2021年3月11日(木)9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
ZoomによるWebinar
言語
日本語
登壇者
  • 永井久美子 東京大学 大学院総合文化研究科 准教授
司会
  • 佐藤至子 東京大学 大学院人文社会系研究科 准教授
イベント概要

Cleopatra VII, Yang Guifei and Ono no Komachi, or Helen. They are called “the world’s three greatest beauties of all time” in Japan. They appear in various TV commercials and other media today. Many people wonder why these women were selected and why it seems to be a story that is widespread only in Japan. In this seminar, these questions will be addressed. Tracing the history of this discourse, the origin dates back to the Meiji and Taishō eras and in the story that seems to tell about diversity at first glance, Japan’s international relations and views on women after the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War are hidden. The speaker would like to discuss the background to the discourse and issues that this story highlights, which lead to the current concept of lookism in Japan.

登壇者について
永井久美子

東京大学大学院総合文化研究科准教授。専門は比較文化、日本古典文学、絵巻物。論文に「『源氏物語』幻巻の四季と浦島伝説――亀比売としての紫の上」(『アジア遊学246』勉誠出版、2020年3月)、「紫式部の近代表象――古典文学の受容と作者像の流布に関する一考察」(『鹿島美術財団年報』第33号別冊、2016年11月)、「暴露の愉悦と誤認の恐怖――「病草紙」における病者との距離」(牛村圭編『文明と身体』臨川書店、2018年)などがある。

Seminar Series

Gimmicks, Politics, and Narrative: Japan’s Thwarted Commemorations, Celebrations, and Comebacks

日時
Wednesday, 20 January 2021 | 9:00–10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • David Leheny Professor, Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University
司会
  • Kenneth McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
イベント概要

This presentation surveys efforts to symbolize Japan’s putative re-emergence as a global power, from the 2018 plans to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Meiji Restoration through the as-yet-uncertain 2020 Tokyo Olympics. It focuses in particular on the rhetoric of a Japanese comeback, particularly under Prime Minister Abe’s cabinets, and on mediated representations of the collective agency that Japan supposedly once had and that is in the process of reconstructing. By drawing from recent theoretical work by Sianne Ngai, Jelena Subotic, Ayse Zarakol, and Lauren Berlant, this presentation inquires about the affective dimensions of historical representation, and identifies risks that failures of spectacle, whether because of unexpected political contestation (as in the Meiji commemoration) or of bad epidemiological luck (as in the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games), lay bare the gimmicky nature of political rhetoric.

登壇者について

David Leheny (PhD, Government, Cornell University) is Professor in the Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies at Waseda University. He previously held the Henry Wendt III ’55 Chair in Contemporary East Asian Studies at Princeton University, where he was Professor of East Asian Studies. Among his books are Empire of Hope: The Sentimental Politics of Japanese Decline (2018), Think Global, Fear Local: Sex, Violence, and Anxiety in Contemporary Japan (2006), and The Rules of Play: National Identity and the Shaping of Japanese Leisure (2003), all published by Cornell University Press.

Seminar Series

Family and Inequality: “Diverging Destinies” in Japan?

日時
2020年11月25日(水)9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoomによるwebinar
言語
英語
登壇者
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology & Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University
司会
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
イベント概要

Research on the “diverging destinies” of children provides a compelling and influential framework for understanding how growing socioeconomic differences in family behavior contribute to inequality and the reproduction of disadvantage. Despite the international prominence of this framework, it has received almost no attention in research on family and inequality in Japan. In this talk, I discuss demographic trends in Japan relevant to the notion of diverging destinies, consider what we can learn by incorporating Japan into the broader international research conversation, and summarize related work that colleagues and I have conducted in recent years. This work examines educational differences in marriage, cohabitation, pregnancy, childbearing, and divorce; the well-being of single mothers; and relationships between parental resources and children’s well-being. In making a case for research on diverging destinies in Japan, I stress the theoretical and empirical value of considering intergenerational family relationships, gender inequality, and the changing economic environment.

登壇者について

Jim Raymo is Professor of Sociology and the Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies at Princeton University. Raymo is a social demographer whose research focuses on documenting and understanding the causes and potential consequences of demographic changes in Japan. His published research includes analyses of marriage timing, divorce, recession and fertility, marriage and women’s health, single mothers’ well-being, living alone, employment and health at older ages, and regional differences in health at older ages. His current research focuses on children’s well-being, changing patterns of family formation, single motherhood, and social isolation and health at older ages.

Seminar Series

吉見俊哉教授・岡崎哲二教授対談: 現代日本研究における「歴史家の仕事」

日時
2020年10月21日(水)9:00 - 10:00(JST)
会場
Zoomによるwebinar
言語
英語
登壇者
  • 吉見俊哉 教授 東京大学大学院情報学環、現代日本研究センター運営委員
  • 岡崎哲二 教授 東京大学大学院経済学研究科、現代日本研究センター連携委員
司会
  • 白波瀬佐和子 教授 現代日本研究センター長
登壇者について
吉見俊哉: Scales of History: How Family History and Global History Work Together

In this short presentation, I will propose that there is correspondence between two scales of history: the social construction of “generations” and the so-called “long waves” of history. In modern and contemporary Japanese history, historic moments of change repeatedly appear every quarter-century: 1870 (more precisely: 1868), 1895, 1920 (more precisely: 1923), 1945, 1970 (more precisely: 1973), 1995, and 2020. Of course, this repetition is in a sense accidental. But it can also be interpreted in relation to the cycles of generational interval and the long waves of modern capitalism (world system). Using this hypothetical frame, I will analyze how contemporary Japanese history has been influenced by the historical practices of different generations, as well as by the structural condition of global capitalism.

岡崎哲二: An Apology for Japanese Economic History

The title of this talk is an homage to Marc Bloch’s “The Historian’s Craft,” which is known in French as “Apologie pour l’histoire ou Métier d’historien.” Bloch was one of the founders of the Annales School and gave his life for freedom in 1944. In his book, Bloch set out to answer an essential question: “what is the use of history?” In this short presentation, I will share my thoughts on this question as it relates to Japanese economic history. Drawing on some of my recent work in Japanese economic history, I will address two main issues: “why history?” and “why Japan?”

Seminar Series

現代日本研究とは何か

日時
2020年9月28日(月)9:00 - 10:30(JST)
会場
Zoomによるwebinar
言語
英語
登壇者
  • 白波瀬佐和子 教授 現代日本研究センター長
  • 星岳雄 教授 東京大学大学院経済学研究科、現代日本研究センター運営委員
  • ケネス・盛・マッケルウエイン 教授 東京大学社会科学研究所、現代日本研究センター運営委員
イベント概要

東京大学に現代日本研究センターという新しい研究の場が誕生しました。本センターでは、現代社会の諸課題のメカニズムの解明を目指して、現代日本という共通の切り口で、文理問わず様々な分野の研究者を繋ぎ、グローバルな視点で研究や発信を行っていきます。海外の多数の主要大学に設置された日本研究センターとの協働も大きな特長です。第1回目のセミナーでは、本センターの中心メンバーが登壇し、海外で展開されている日本研究の動向や、何が課題で、どこに新たな展開の活路が見いだせるのかという点について語ります。