Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Female Managers and the Gender Wage Gap: Workgroup Gender Composition Matters

日時
Thursday, 30 September 2021 | 9:00am - 10:00am (JST)
会場
言語
English
登壇者
  • Young-Mi Kim Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Yonsei University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

Women’s representation in managerial positions is a common metric for gender equity in organizations. Whether female managers improve gender equity among their subordinates is, however, less clear. Drawing on rich longitudinal personnel data from a large Korean food company, we provide new insight into this question by focusing attention on key micro-contexts for interaction and relational politics within organizations: workgroups. Building on social-psychological theories about in-group preference and value threats, we theorize that workgroup gender composition conditions the relationship between supervisor gender and gender earnings differentials with them. Results from regression models with workgroup fixed effects confirm this insight. Female supervisors are associated with smaller gender earnings gaps when workgroups are male-dominated, but gender wage gaps widen under female supervision as teams become more female-dominated.

登壇者について

Young-Mi Kim is an Associate Professor of Sociology at Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Her main area of research is gender inequality in the labor market, organization, and family. Her work has been focused on revealing the unique characteristics of gender inequality in Korea and East Asia in the context of labor market segmentation. Recently, her interest moved to the organization side and she investigates organizational mechanisms of gender inequality in various dimensions using personnel data. She is also a PI of a research project funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRFK) to investigate how social inequality and demographic changes are linked through family dynamics.

Conferences

HMC-TCJS Joint Seminar Series 「死の影」と向き合う 近代日本の経営と文学

日時
Friday, 27 August 2021 | 17:30pm - 19:30pm (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
Japanese
登壇者
  • 清水剛 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科 教授
司会
  • 齋藤希史 東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科 教授
イベント概要

 近代化の過程の中で、多くの人々は家族や所属していた地域共同体から切り離され、独立した自律的な個人となる一方で、急速に拡大する産業化の中で、人は政府や企業、あるいは軍隊のような何らかの組織の中で生きざるを得なくなる。
 このため、一方で共同体を喪失した個人が所属する組織を見出すことができるかという問題は生まれるとともに、他方でそのような組織と個人との葛藤が見出されることになる。とりわけ、「死の影」の下にある社会、すなわちスペイン風邪 や結核のような感染症等による死の可能性に人々がさらされている社会においては、組織に所属できるかどうか、あるいはそこで良い生を送ることができるかどうかは深刻な問題となる。
 本発表では、経営と文学という、通常は全く異なると考えられている二つの領域 においてこのような問題をどのように扱ってきたのかを、近代の日本を例にして考えてみる。併せて、いかに経営と文学とを関係づけられるかについても取り上 げてみたい。

登壇者について

Takashi Shimizu (Ph.D. in economics, The University of Tokyo) is Professor of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo. He is a scholar of management and business history who is specialized in corporate systems and interactions between legal systems and corporate behaviors. Recently he published a book titled “感染症と経営:戦前日本企業は「死の影」といかに 向き合ったか (Infectious Diseases and Management: How Japanese Companies coped with the Shadow of Death before WWII)” from Chuo-Keizaisha Publishing.

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series 「女性活躍」のための政策の動向と残された課題 ~若草プロジェクトの活動から見えてきたもの~

日時
2021年7月7日(水)9:00 - 10:00(JST)
会場
Zoomによるwebinar
言語
日本語
登壇者
  • 村木厚子 津田塾大学客員教授
司会
  • 白波瀬佐和子 東京大学現代日本研究センター長
イベント概要

少子高齢化の進展とそれに伴う財政状況の悪化に伴い、「支え手」としての女性の活躍と将来の支え手である子ども・子育てのための政策は、政府部内で重要度が高まっている。これらは、男性の働き方や家庭参加のありようの変革、また、企業の人事労務管理の変革を求めている。こうした最近の政策の流れを確認したうえで、見落とされがちな、「女性活躍のスタートラインにすら立てていない状況にある少女・若年女性」の問題について、生きづらさを抱える少女・若年女性を支援する若草プロジェクト活動を通じて見えてきた課題を紹介する。

登壇者について
村木厚子

労働省(現・厚生労働省)入省。女性政策や障害者政策などを担当。2009年、郵便不正事件で逮捕。10年、無罪が確定し、復職。13年、厚生労働事務次官。15年、退官。困難を抱える若い女性を支える「若草プロジェクト」代表呼びかけ人。津田塾大学客員教授、伊藤忠商事などの社外取締役を務める。著書に『あきらめない』(日本経済新聞出版社)、『日本型組織の病を考える』(角川書店)など。

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Japan’s Work-Life Balance Reconsidered

日時
Wednesday, 26 May 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar  登録はこちら
Zoomのリンクは、登録後におしらせします。
言語
English
登壇者
  • Machiko Osawa Professor Emeritus, Japan Women’s University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

The Covid-19 pandemic is accentuating the gender gap and existing divides between regular and non-regular workers, large and small firms and various sectors of the economy. In my talk, I would like to discuss the impact of the pandemic on gender differences in Japan, and various factors that are amplifying these differences.

Japanese society is still organized around the breadwinner system of full-time male workers providing for their families while their wives focus on caring for the family. This gender division of labor and patriarchal ideology is embodied in the employment system of regular and non-regular workers in which women are disproportionately represented in the latter category, entailing disadvantages in pay, security and training. The assumption that women are supplemental earners confronts the reality where most households are dependent on both incomes and there is an increasing number of single parent households due to rising divorce rates. Moreover, the never married population is increasing. The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the persistent gender division of labor as hundreds of thousands of working mothers gave up their jobs to cope with school lockdown measures and found it hard to return to work in the midst of a recession. In addition, women have lost jobs because they tend to be employed in sectors that have been hard hit by the outbreak. Teleworking offers the possibility of juggling work and home responsibilities, but this has been largely unrealized because many firms bar teleworking for non-regular workers and women are often in jobs that require a physical presence. Teleworking may not be a panacea but is likely to expand, raising questions about how this flexibility can benefit households and women’s career prospects.

登壇者について

Machiko Osawa holds a Ph.D in economics from Southern Illinois University. Currently she is Professor emeritus and specially appointed to the researcher, the Research Institute for Women and Careers at Japan Women’s University. She served on Advisory Boards of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor, Prime Minister’s Gender Equality Bureau, and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. She is also author of various books such as Economic Change and Women Workers: Japan U.S. Comparison (1993, Nihon-Keizai Hyoronsha, Received Kagami Book Award), Economics of New Family (Chuo Koron Shinsya, 1998), Non-Standard Work in Developed Economies (ed. with Susan houseman, Upjohn Institute, 2003), Towards Work-Life Balance Society(Iwanami, 2006),and Work-Life Synergy (Iwanami, 2008), Japan’s Working Poor (Iwanami,2010), When Housewives Return to the Labor Market-Towards Second Chance Society (NTT Shuppan, 2012) What’s Holding Back Japanese Women, (Tokyo Keizai Shinposya, 2015) Women and Work in the 21stcentury, (Sayusya, 2018) Why There are so Few Women Managers in the Japanese Workplace, (Seikyusya, 2019).

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Why Gender Inequality in Japan is Alive and Well

日時
Tuesday, 11 May 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Mary C. Brinton Reischauer Institute Professor of Sociology, Harvard University
イベント概要

Japan ranks very low on every measure of gender equality used by the OECD and other international organizations, including the yearly “gender gap index” published by the World Economic Forum. In 2006, the first year the index was published, Japan ranked 79 out of 115 countries in gender equality. Fifteen years later, Japan’s relative position had declined to 120 out of 156. Standardized across years, the country’s ranking declined from 69 out of 100 in 2006 to 77 in 2021. This latest ranking puts Japan’s level of gender equality below that of many less-wealthy countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Why has Japan’s high level of gender inequality shown such stubborn persistence over time? In this talk I examine the misguided policy attempts to “make women shine” and argue for the importance of a paradigm shift in the analysis of Japanese gender inequality.

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Married Japanese Salarywomen’s Strategies for Maintaining Careers and Well-Being in the 2000s

日時
Wednesday, 24 March 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Glenda Roberts Professor, Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University
司会
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
イベント概要

This talk will focus on a question I asked in my 2019 Japan Focus publication, ‘Leaning Out for the Long Span,’ asking, how do women in ordinary career positions maintain both their careers and their well-being when their husbands are rarely able to substantially contribute to childrearing and domestic management? I will discuss the building a career over the long span of marriage and childrearing, and the choices ordinary salary women make not to lean in too far, while enlisting intergenerational support in order to manage their family lives. While such strategies may not propel married women into the ranks of upper management, they are survival strategies while the children are growing up. Will these strategies evolve as companies are pressured to increase the percentage of women in management under Womenomics policies? How much are neo-liberal notions of career-building and self-responsibility affecting Japanese salarywomen? Data come from a longitudinal set of fourteen women in the same Tokyo corporation, whom I have been interviewing at 3-5 year intervals since 2003.

Conferences

UTokyo x Princeton Demography & Inequality in East Asia Series Should We Discuss East Asian Demographics using a Social-Stratification Framework?

日時
Wednesday, 17 March 2021 | 9:00 – 10:30 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Hiroshi Ishida University Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology and Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
  • Yu Xie Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Sociology and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies
Time Table
9:00 - 9:05
Opening Remarks
登壇者
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology and Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University
9:05 - 9:20
Social Change and Social Inequality in Japan
登壇者
  • Hiroshi Ishida University Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo

This presentation discusses significant societal changes including industrialization and changes in class structure and demographic transformation and their relationships to social inequality in postwar Japan. It will examine how societal changes affected the opportunities of educational attainment and social mobility.

9:20 - 9:35
Changing Family Demography & Inequality Within and Across Generations
登壇者
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology and Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University

Profound family change in Japan, including rising rates of divorce, bridal pregnancy, remarriage, lifelong singlehood and increasing variance in age at marriage and childbirth, raises important questions about the implications of these changes for inequality. To what extent are emerging family behaviors associated with educational attainment and other well-established dimensions of social and economic inequality? To what extent are they associated with individual well-being, particularly that of children? To what extent do these changes in family formation shape inequality across the life course, especially at older ages? High-quality social survey data, in conjunction with compelling theory, allow us to begin answering these important questions.

9:35 - 9:50
Social Inequality & the Economic Well-Being of the Elderly in Rapidly-Aging Japan
登壇者
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo

Japan is the most aged society in the world. The speed at which Japan’s population has aged is one of the most important characteristics of its demographic transformation since World War II. Shirahase will present the basic statistics on this trend with regard to economic and gender inequality, as well as the family structure. She will also highlight inclusiveness as a potentially critical concept for linking social empirical evidence on inequality with policy debates.

9:50 - 10:05
The Impact of Economic Inequality on Social and Demographic Outcomes in China
登壇者
  • Yu Xie Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Sociology and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies

In this presentation, Professor Yu Xie first documents a sharp rise in economic inequality in contemporary China, drawing on newly available survey data collected by several Chinese university survey organizations. He then presents results from his research program on the impact of rising economic inequality on a variety of social and demographic outcomes in China: intergenerational mobility, mortality, marriage age, marriage partner choice, and fertility.

10:05 - 10:25
Audience Q&A
登壇者
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
Conferences

UTokyo × Waseda Political Science Colloquium

日時
Monday, 1 March 2021 | 12:30 - 14:30 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
English
登壇者
  • Rieko KAGE Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
  • Antonio Benasaglio BERLUCCHI Graduate School of Political Science, Waseda University
司会
  • Yuriko TAKAHASHI Faculty of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University
  • Takeshi ITO Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Conferences

Gender in Japan Series 「日本のジェンダー格差、なぜ解消しないのか」

日時
2021年2月22日(月)9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
会場
ZoomによるWebinar
言語
日本語
登壇者
  • 上野千鶴子 東京大学名誉教授、NPO法人ウィメンズアクションネットワーク
司会
  • 白波瀬佐和子 東京大学現代日本研究センター長
イベント概要

コロナ禍のもとで1年が過ぎました。非常時には見たことも聞いたこともない新しい変化が起きるというよりも、平時の矛盾が拡大・増幅してあらわれます。そのしわ寄せを食らったのが、もともと脆弱な状況に置かれた女性たちでした。GDPが世界3位なのに、男女平等指数が121位。これは日本社会の謎であり、課題です。同様に、4大進学率が男女とも約5割の時代に女子学生比率が2割の壁を越えないのも東京大学の謎であり、課題です。東京大学理事・副学長を務められ、政府が任命した「コロナ下の女性への影響と課題に関する研究会」の座長として迅速に「緊急提言」を出された、元同僚である白波瀬佐和子さんとトークできるのが楽しみです。

登壇者について
上野千鶴子

社会学者。京都大学大学院社会学博士課程修了。社会学博士。1993年東京大学文学部助教授(社会学)、1995年から2011年3月まで、東京大学大学院人文社会系研究科教授。2011年4月から認定NPO法人ウィメンズアクションネットワーク(WAN)理事長。第20−22期学術会議会員。第23-25期日本学術会議連携会員。専門は女性学、ジェンダー研究。高齢者の介護とケアも研究テーマとしている。

Conferences

東大・早稲田政治学コロキアム

日時
2021年1月14日(火)12:30 - 14:30 (JST)
会場
Zoom Webinar
言語
日本語
登壇者
  • 淺野 塁 早稲田大学・政治学研究科
  • 保城広至 東京大学・社会科学研究所
  • 金子智樹 東京大学・法学政治学研究科
  • 河野 勝 早稲田大学・政治経済学術院
Time Table
12:30 - 13:30
「国連平和維持活動の派遣パターン:紛争単位と国内行政区画単位の分析」
登壇者
  • 淺野 塁 早稲田大学・政治学研究科
討論者
  • 保城広至 東京大学・社会科学研究所
13:30 - 14:30
「新聞の左右イデオロギーと有権者の投票行動:戦後日本の地域別新聞普及状況の分析」
登壇者
  • 金子智樹 東京大学・法学政治学研究科
討論者
  • 河野 勝 早稲田大学・政治経済学術院
共催
  • 東京大学現代日本研究センター
  • 東京大学社会科学研究所
  • 早稲田大学・現代政治経済研究所
Conferences

21世紀の日本政治 東大・早稲田政治学コロキアム

日時
2020年12月16日(水)9:00 - 12:00 (JST)
会場
Zoomによるwebinar
言語
日本語・英語
登壇者
  • 五神真 東京大学 総長
  • 田中愛治 早稲田大学 総長
  • 河野勝 教授 早稲田大学政治経済学術院
  • 井上彰 教授 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科
  • 日野愛郎 教授 早稲田大学政治経済学術院
  • ケネス・盛・マッケルウェイン 教授 東京大学社会科学研究所
司会
  • 白波瀬佐和子 教授 現代日本研究センター長
Time Table
9:00 – 9:25
開会の挨拶
登壇者
  • 五神真 東京大学 総長
  • 田中愛治 早稲田大学 総長
司会
  • 白波瀬佐和子 教授 現代日本研究センター長
9:30 – 10:40
テーマ「政治哲学と実証分析」
登壇者
  • 井上彰 教授 東京大学大学院総合文化研究科
  • 河野勝 教授 早稲田大学政治経済学術院
10:45 – 11:50
テーマ「21世紀日本のイデオロギーと価値観」
登壇者
  • ケネス・盛・マッケルウェイン 教授 東京大学社会科学研究所
  • 日野愛郎 教授 早稲田大学政治経済学術院
11:55 – 12:00
閉会の挨拶