Early-Career Scholar Forum

The Merits and Demerits of Ambiguous Objectives: Japanese Troops Withdrawal from Iraq and South Sudan

Date
Friday, 11 March 2022 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Nagafumi Nakamura Project Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Rieko Kage Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the University of Tokyo
Event Description

Why do intervening states find it difficult to make the decision to withdraw from armed peace operations? According to previous studies that focus on the withdrawal of the operation leading country (e.g., U.S.), this is because ambiguous intervention objectives (e.g., preventing hotbeds of terrorism) are accompanied by complex criteria with which to evaluate whether those objectives have been achieved. Given this ambiguity, the operation leading country has to persuade those who emphasize the most demanding criteria for achievement of the objective (e.g., the elimination of all terrorists in the intervened states). On the other hand, this study insists that ambiguous objectives may justify the withdrawal of countries that contribute troops (e.g., Japan). Given this ambiguity, their operation participating countries can emphasize the least demanding criteria (e.g., protecting civilians until intervened states’ security forces are prepared to protect them). This study tests this hypothesis through the case studies of Japanese withdrawal from Iraq and South Sudan.

About the Speaker

Nagafumi Nakamura is a Project Assistant Professor in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Tokyo. His research focus is International Relations, specifically international security from the end of the cold war, humanitarian intervention, the war on terror, and peace operations. He has published 6 peer-reviewed articles including “Conditions of Exit from New Wars,” Nenpo Seijigaku (2021); “The Dilemma of Exit Strategy,” Heiwa Kenkyu vol. 48 (2018); and “Considering the Exit Strategy in Peace Operations from a Historical Perspective,” Kokuren Kenkyu vol. 19 (2018). He has also contributed to 6 specialized academic books and textbooks.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Emerging Challenges of Unoccupied Houses in Japan

Date
Friday, 4 March 2022 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Yuko Nakata Project Research Associate of Transnational Law, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Masayuki Tamaruya Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

This research analyzes legal issues that have contributed to the growing number of unoccupied properties in Japan and proposes how the Japanese government should manage them with trust. Unoccupied houses have become an important concern in the aging society of Japan. It is said that unoccupied properties adversely affect the community environment. They are at a high risk of collapsing and could be hotbeds of crimes. The existence of unoccupied properties also reduces the value of surrounding areas. Local governments and the Land Bank of the Public-Private Partnership have tried to take measures to this problem, but they are not ef

About the Speaker

Yuko Nakata is a program-specific assistant professor of Transnational Law at the University of Tokyo Graduate Schools for Law and Politics. Her academic interests include the enforceable rights of the mortgagee (the secured creditor) and the effectiveness of foreclosure procedures in mortgage laws. Her current research focuses on the legal issues of unoccupied houses after the foreclosure procedure. She obtains a B.A. at Doshisha University, a Master in Laws at the University of Tokyo, and an LL.M. at the University of London Queen Mary.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Leaning to the Left: Political Consequences of the Financial Crisis

Date
Friday, 18 February 2022 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Miku Matsunaga Postdoctoral Project Researcher, Graduate School of Economics, Center for Research and Education in Program Evaluation (CREPE), the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Do political actors change their positions in response to the crisis? This article studies the effect of the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis on the change of political behavior. Focusing on industrialized countries, I argue that both parties and voters are more likely to update their economic and ideological positions towards left-ward after the crisis. The approach for testing the argument consists of a party-level analysis and an individual-level difference-in-differences design. The cross-national party-level study suggests that both left and right-wing parties are more likely to update their economic positions to the left after the crisis. A case study of the Japanese 2009 General Election shows that this “liberalization” trend is strong enough to cause the regime change from the long-standing mainstream right party (LDP) to the center-left party (DPJ). The results have broad implications for understanding the political behavior resulting in the crisis.

About the Speaker

Miku Matsunaga is a postdoctoral project researcher at the University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics, and Center for Research and Education in Program Evaluation (CREPE). Her main research interest includes election violence, (radical) populist parties, Political Economy, and International Relations. After receiving an LL.B in International legal studies, she earned MPP from the University of Tokyo, an MA in Politics from New York University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Essex.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Intertwined Relations between Communication in Cyberspace and Economic and Political Situations in the Physical World

Date
Friday, 4 February 2022 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Yuya Shibuya Project Research Associate, The Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Kenneth Mori MCELWAIN Professor, Institute of Social Science, the University of Tokyo
Event Description

Social media is everywhere. Their ubiquity and pervasiveness in today’s society have awakened interest across research fields. My project approaches social media-related phenomena in Japan through an interdisciplinary lens. In particular, we examine how economic, political, and social situations in the real world relate to and impact people’s communication in the digital world and vice versa. In this talk, I look at this dynamic relationship through various cases, including COVID-19 and the 2020 Olympics. Specifically, I will discuss communication strategies, economic incentives, people’s narratives and discourses, and policy implications in the current information age.

About the Speaker

Yuya Shibuya is a research associate at the Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, at The University of Tokyo. She received her Ph.D. in Socio-information and Communication Studies from The University of Tokyo in 2019.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Creative Data Visualization Applied to Various Domains, a Showcase of Japan-related Projects

Date
Friday, 28 January 2022 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Dea Bankova Postdoctral Project Researcher, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Information Studies, the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

In my work, I use data visualization and data art, combined with analysis and machine learning as a means to facilitate an exchange of information, ideas, and even emotions with the audience. Over the past year, I worked on several projects that explore topics unique to Japan, and in this talk, I will showcase a few, as well as discuss the creation process (analysis, design decisions, and story). Specifically, I will discuss a project with Watanave Lab and Iwate Nippo to create a digital archive of thoughts and experiences of survivors of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, and a separate visualization of the biggest earthquakes in recent Japanese history. I will also present a personal data art project that explores Japanese anime over the past 50 years from the point of view of international fans. Time permitting, I will demo other creative visualization work.

About the Speaker

Dea Bankova is currently a Project Researcher at the Watanave Hidenori lab at the University of Tokyo, as well as an independent data visualization consultant. Her current interests are in interactive and creative visualization.
Previously, she worked in machine learning in the UK at Microsoft and a data science start-up company. She obtained her Master’s degree in Mathematics and Computer Science from the University of Oxford in 2015.
Dea is originally from Bulgaria and the UK. She has been interested in Japan for many years and moved to Tokyo in 2019.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Contradiction as Injustice: How Senses of Inequality Differ Across National Contexts

Date
Friday, 21 January 2022 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Yuki Asahina Assistant Professor, Graduate School of International and Area Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Similar levels of inequality may be coded as acceptable or unacceptable in different places. To account for misrecognition of inequality, the existing studies highlight the roles of ideological legitimation and situated comparison through which individuals read inequality around them, but these accounts can be further elaborated upon. This paper argues that it is neither the belief in ideology nor social comparison alone but rather the relationship between the two which shapes particular ways in which inequality is experienced. The dominant collective narratives rooted in macro-level contexts and individuals’ situated comparisons shape perceptions of the contradiction (or lack thereof) between how people think things should be and how things are in three specific ways. The proposed framework is put to use with interviews with 98 millennials in Japan and South Korea.

About the Speaker

Yuki Asahina is an assistant professor in the Graduate School of International and Area Studies at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in Seoul, South Korea. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa and was previously a postdoctoral fellow at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at Harvard University. He specializes in inequality, globalization, and right-wing groups in East Asia. Currently, he is working on a book manuscript analyzing precarious youth in Korea and Japan.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Merit-Based Reward Systems and Gender Wage Inequality in Large Japanese Firms

Date
Friday, 14 January 2022 | 9:00 - 9:45 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Eunmi Mun Assistant Professor, School of Labor and Employment Relations, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Moderator
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

It is widely believed that meritocratic employment practices reduce gender inequality by limiting managers’ reliance on non-merit factors, such as biases. An emerging stream of research, however, questions the belief, arguing that meritocratic practices often fail to reduce inequality and may paradoxically increase it. Despite these opposing predictions, we still lack convincing empirical findings to adjudicate between them. Typically relying on data from a single organization or industry, most previous studies suffer from limited generalizability and cannot properly account for the large variation in the implementation of merit-based reward systems across organizations, let alone identify the origins of the variation. We attempt to overcome the limitations by constructing large-scale linked employer-employee

About the Speaker

Eunmi Mun is an assistant professor at the School of Labor and Employment Relations at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Her research investigates organizational responses to social demands for gender equality and the effectiveness of organizational practices to address gender equality. She has published papers on corporate responses to the Japanese Equal Employment Opportunity Law, the impact of corporate social responsibility on gender diversity in Japanese firms, and parental leave policies in Japan. She is currently working on a comparative project to document firm-level gender inequality profiles across countries.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Elite Mobility and Continuity during a Regime Change

Date
Friday, 10 December 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Tomoko Matsumoto Junior Associate Professor, the Tokyo University of Science
Moderator
  • Kenneth Mori MCELWAIN Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

How does a regime change influence elite mobility? Our study provides new evidence that the impact of a regime change on elite mobility is not linear but different by phases of a regime change, collecting elite data after the Meiji Restoration in Japan (1868). We analyze the impact of the regime change from the two aspects: (1) composition of elites or the elite membership and (2) the internal hierarchy within them. Regarding the elite membership, the regime change surely opened an opportunity for commoners to join the elite group. The share of the elites whose fathers were commoners increased. On the other hand, although the commoners’ disadvantages in achieving higher ranks within the elite group was insignificant after the regime change but this did not last long. After the new regime established, the internal elite hierarchy again started to reflect the social stratum of the former regime and weaken meritocracy.

About the Speaker

Dr. Tomoko Matsumoto is a Junior associate professor at the Tokyo University of Science. She is interested in the relationship between ordinary people and democracy. Her research is published in Electoral Studies and Journal of Japanese Political Science.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Improving Local Food Brands – Domestic Wheats for Japanese Udon Noodles –

Date
Friday, 3 December 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Tomoyuki Narisawa Chief, Saitama Industrial Technology Center, Northern Laboratory
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Improving food self-sufficiency ratio is a big issue in Japan, and increasing the use of domestic wheats is one of the effective means. Our laboratory has conducted studies to increase the use of domestic wheats for Udon noodles. “Norin61” (N61), a domestic wheat that was once popular in Japan, remains a perennial favorite because of its excellent sensory characteristics including the unique taste/flavor compared with Australian Standard White (ASW) wheat. Currently, N61 has been replaced by “Satonosora”, which is one of the successors of N61. Satonosora has desirable properties for agricultural producer such as disease resistance and crop yields like ASW, but it is inferior in Udon making because of a less unique flavor compared with N61. Through the chemical analysis to clarify the formation mechanism of the Udon flavor, I established a technique for flavor enrichment in the noodle-making process. The technique has been recently applied to the development of new value-added noodle products by various companies.

About the Speaker

Tomoyuki Narisawa is a chief at Saitama Industrial Technology Center Northern Laboratory. He obtained a Bachelor in Science from Josai University in 2008, a Master of Arts and Sciences from the University of Tokyo in 2010, and a Ph.D. in Agriculture from the University of Tokyo in 2019. For a year in FY2013, he was seconded as a technology liaison fellow to a division of university corporate relations, the University of Tokyo. His research interests are food science and food analysis in local foods, especially wheat

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Getting Women to Ask for More: Designing for Gender Equity in Negotiation in Online Freelancing

Date
Friday, 12 November 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Eureka Foong Postdoctoral Fellow, Tokyo College (Visiting Researcher in the CoEx Lab at Carnegie Mellon University) , The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

The online gig economy has the potential to mitigate gender inequities in the workplace by providing flexible, remote, short-term opportunities to find paid work. However, prior work suggests women ask for lower hourly pay rates than men in online freelance marketplaces. Several factors could explain these gaps, such as gender “likability” biases that penalize women for more assertive behaviors, like negotiation, and differences in how men and women evaluate their worth. In this talk, I will discuss results from a design-based research study to understand challenges female freelancers perceive in rate-setting and negotiation online. My team completed 19 participatory design workshops with online female freelancers from 13 countries. I highlight opportunities to design tools that promote gender equity in online negotiation and rate-setting by mitigating fears over global competition, ambiguity in negotiation norms, and challenges building trustworthy client relationships at distance.

About the Speaker

Eureka Foong, PhD, is a computer scientist and design researcher of equity and online work. As a Postdoctoral Fellow at Tokyo College in the University of Tokyo and a Visiting Researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, she has been awarded numerous international grants from the Segal Design Institute and Adobe Research to conduct research on remote work and the online gig economy. Eureka has extensive experience leading socially impactful user experience (UX) projects with industry teams at Facebook and Piktochart. www.eurekafoong.com

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Oka Yoshisato and Political Science in Post-war Japan

Date
Friday, 5 November 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Isami Sawai Project Lecturer, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Masayuki Tamaruya Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Oka Yoshisato (1921-1999), a professor of political science at the UTokyo Faculty of Law, is famous for his book Politics Seiji in Japan, which showed his original and systematic insights on politics in general. However, presumably since the number of his works is very limited and that his writing style is difficult to understand, few researchers have investigated Oka’s study of political science. By relying on a variety of sources including transcripts of his lectures as well as his book collections, this presentation examines the development, transformation, and challenge of Oka’s study of political science, particularly emphasizing the impact of historical and intellectual backgrounds of the 1960s. Furthermore, this presentation argues that the re-evaluation of Oka’s study would lead to revealing the ‘Japanese’ features of political science in the post-war period, which still have some impacts on contemporary political studies in Japan.

About the Speaker

Isami Sawai is a Project Lecturer at UTokyo Graduate Schools for Law and Politics. He received a LL.B. (2013) and M.Phil. in Political Science (2015) from UTokyo, and is now at the final stage of his PhD in International History at London School of Economics (2021). Before the appointment to the Project Lecturer position, he had worked as a research associate at UTokyo Graduate Schools for Law and Politics from 2015-16 and 2019-21. His research interests lie in modern East Asian international history, particularly in China and Japan’s transformation of foreign relations in the late 19th century.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Unveiling Valence: Explaining LDP Dominance in Japan

Date
Friday, 22 October 2021 | 9:00 - 9:45 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting
Language
English
Speakers
  • Jordan Hamzawi Postdoctoral Fellow, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University
Moderator
  • Kenneth Mori MCELWAIN Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

I discuss how party policy and valence shape Japanese politics. Drawing from the literature valence, which highlights the significance of things like competence and capability on voter choice, I provide evidence that the LDP lost in 2009 due to poor policy positioning while facing the DPJ, a party with comparable valence. However, after the DPJ split apart, the LDP was able to dominate a fragmented opposition once more through its relatively superior valence. I conclude that opposition parties in Japan are either poorly positioned on policy relative to voter preferences or do not have the necessary valence to compete with the LDP even when better positioned on politics

About the Speaker

Jordan Hamzawi began studying Japanese politics as an undergraduate at Brigham Young University where he double majored in International Relations and Japanese. He continued his studies at the University of Michigan where he received a Master’s in Area Studies: Japan and then went on to complete his Ph.D. in political science at the University of California, Davis. He is currently working as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University, researching Japanese electoral politics and drafting a manuscript for a book on LDP dominance.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Ryukyuan Embassies to Edo on Parade: Reading Procession as a Ritual Form

Date
Friday, 8 October 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting
Language
English
Speakers
  • Travis Seifman Postdoctoral Researcher, Historiographical Institute (Shiryōhensanjo), the University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Yoko Matsui Professor, Historiographical Institute, the University of Tokyo
Event Description

Over the course of the 17th-19th centuries, seventeen formal embassies from the Okinawan kingdom of Lūchū (Ryūkyū) journeyed to Edo to engage in ceremonies ritually reaffirming the kingdom’s relationship to the Tokugawa shogunate. In numerous locations along their round-trip journey, the embassies were put on public display in grand processions, flying banners, wearing costumes, and playing music while escorted by a mass of Kagoshima domain samurai warriors. These processions, and illustrations of them, played a central role in informing popular conceptions among early modern Japanese of Lūchū’s cultural character and political status. Drawing upon a number of visual and textual sources, this paper examines the political significance and impact of visual, material, and performative aspects of these processional displays, with a particular eye to analyzing procession as a distinctive form of ritual performance.

About the Speaker

Travis Seifman is a postdoctoral Project Researcher at the University of Tokyo Historiographical Institute (Shiryōhensanjo). He holds a PhD in History from the University of California, Santa Barbara and an MA in Art History from the University of Hawaiʻi. His PhD dissertation and current book project explore ritual performance in embassies dispatched to Edo by the Okinawan kingdom of Lūchū (Ryūkyū) in the 17th to 19th centuries. He is also interested in 20th-21st century reenactments of Lūchūan royal ritual culture, and the role of Shurijo Castle Park in the revival and continuation of Okinawan performing and visual arts traditions.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Reexamining Ruling Party Leadership Elections in Japan: A Historical Case

Date
Friday, 1 October 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Meeting
Language
English
Speakers
  • Taro Tsuda Assistant Professor, College of Foreign Studies, Kansai Gaidai University
Moderator
  • Kenneth Mori MCELWAIN Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

The election of the Liberal Democratic Party’s top leader (sōsai or president) is one of the most important rituals in contemporary Japanese politics. Since its founding in 1955, the LDP has been Japan’s dominant political party and under the country’s parliamentary system, the head of the majority party in the National Diet almost inevitably doubles as the prime minister. In characterizing LDP leadership elections, analysts have often focused on the role of money, factions, and backroom deals in what are essentially elite intraparty contests. Policy goals or ideological affirmations expressed during these events tend to be seen as lip service done to give candidacies a veneer of higher public purpose. To what extent is this true? In this paper he reassesses LDP leadership elections, focusing on the election of 1964. This case involved standard machinations by party bosses and their factions but was also heralded by some as centered on policies and programs to an unprecedented level. After analyzing how this contest was evaluated by prominent political participants and observers, he will examine the media coverage at the time and available information about public opinion. This study will carefully consider the conventions and rituals of such party leadership elections, also aiming to draw connections to contemporary Japanese politics, in which the LDP remains very much in charge.

About the Speaker

Taro Tsuda is an assistant professor in the College of Foreign Studies at Kansai Gaidai University, where he teaches courses on international relations, international history, and Asian studies. His research focuses on contemporary Japanese political history. Currently he is working on a book project examining the life and career of prime minister Sato Eisaku and his role in contributing to the Liberal Democratic Party’s long-term rule. Taro received a Ph.D. in History and East Asian Languages in 2019 in Harvard University’s Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Urban Redevelopment Program and Shopping Externality

Date
Friday, 24 September 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Chigusa Okamoto Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Chuo University
Moderator
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

We quantify the externality of redevelopment program of urban shopping center on its neighborhood, exploiting the urban redevelopment program in the central shopping district in Tokyo as a natural experiment. The demolish of 77-years old apartment unit and a construction of shopping complex generated immediate hike in the neighborhood land price and long-term increase of the aggregate sales of neighborhood clothing stores. The redevelopment program did not change the land use of neighborhood because of the tight regulation of land use; the resulting inelastic supply of land induced substantial land price hike.

About the Speaker

Chigusa Okamoto is an Assistant Professor at Faculty of Economics, Chuo University. She is also a project researcher at Center for Research and Education in Program Evaluation (CREPE), the University of Tokyo. She took her Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Tokyo. Her main research areas are Urban Economics, Spatial Economics and Applied Microeconometrics.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Japan: Determinants, Reasons, and a Potential Solution

Date
Friday, 17 September 2021 | 12:15pm - 1:00pm (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Shohei Okamoto JSPS Postdoctoral Fellow, Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Even though the degree and duration of vaccines’ efficacies remain unconfirmed, widespread vaccination, by establishing herd immunity against the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is a demanded step to the pandemic end. However, vaccine hesitancy, defined as ‘delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability of vaccine services’, can hinder achieving herd immunity. In this study, we investigated determinants and reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, utilising a sample of Japanese adults aged between 20 and 74, collected through an online survey in July 2021. Furthermore, we conducted a conjoint experiment to evaluate if relaxing social distancing policies can increase vaccination intentions.

About the Speaker

Shohei Okamoto is a JSPS postdoctoral fellow at the Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health of Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, whose expertise lies in social epidemiology.

Prior to the present position, he was engaged in research at the Leading Graduate School program of Keio University, at the Department of Global Health & Social Medicine of King’s College London, and at the Research Center for Financial Gerontology of Keio University.

He received his BA & MA in Economics, MS in Epidemiology, and PhD in Economics from Keio University, Tokyo, Japan.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Judicialization of Occupational Health Political Process: The Case of Karôshi-karôjisatsu and the Articulation of Multiple Temporalities

Date
Friday, 10 September 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Adrienne Sala Visiting Scholar, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • KAGE Rieko Professor , Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

We analyze the articulation of administrative, legislative and political temporalities with the temporality of collective action and legal mobilization organized by the anti-karôshi movement since the 1960s. The back-and-forth movement between legal mobilization and collective action can be understood in relation to the three temporalities that characterized the movement three main objectives: recognition as a professional disease (administrative and judiciary temporalities), enactment of karôshi prevention law (legislative temporality) and reform of the working time regulation (public action temporality). Articulation of these different temporalities is pivotal to the judicialization of occupational health political process.

About the Speaker

Adrienne Sala is social science researcher at the French Institute of Research on Japan, at the Maison franco-japonaise in Tokyo (UMIFRE 19, CNRS, MEAE), visiting researcher at the University of Tokyo, Institute of Social Science and associate researcher at the Fondation France-Japon de l’EHESS. Her main research interests include political sociology and political economy of institutional change, legal mobilizations and legal professionals role in the Japanese society.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Comparative Politics of Tax Reform: The Role of Experts in Japan and NZ

Date
Friday, 3 Sep 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Masako Tanaka Project Research Associate, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Kenneth Mori McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Tax reform is rare because it is hard. To cope with tax protest movement, government officials tend to establish tax commission, consisting of experts, academics, and business people. In this presentation, she compares Japan and NZ to examine how experts play a role in tax reform. Experts of both countries review the problem of current taxation system and make proposals or recommendations to the Minister. Some proposals are accepted, but others are not. Focusing on the institutionalization of economic knowledge within the state, she explores what determine the difference.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Economic Consequences of Manipulation of Social Insurance Benefits

Date
Friday, 20 August 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Masaki Takahashi Specially Appointed Professor, Institute for Advanced Study, Hitotsubashi University
Moderator
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

This paper investigates the economic consequences of manipulation of social insurance benefits in the context of public long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Japan. We first document novel discontinuity and bunching in the distribution of health scores that determine benefit levels for LTCI. The observed distribution suggests that LTCI recipients tend to receive more generous benefits than they should because medical examiners manipulate recipients’ health score. To quantify the impact of manipulation on long-term care (LTC) expenditures, we develop partial identification and nonparametric estimation methods that allow for flexible restrictions on counterfactual distribution. Our baseline estimation indicates that the manipulation increases monthly LTC expenditures per recipient by 60.2-227.9 USD (3.7-15.5%). We also find that the lower bound on manipulation effects is robust to various restrictions.

About the Speaker

Masaki Takahashi is a postdoctoral researcher at Hitotsubashi Institute for Advanced Studies (HIAS). His academic interests are health economics, public economics, and behavioral economics. He obtained a BA in Economics from Keio University, an MA in Economics from University at Albany, State University of New York, an MA in Economics from the University of Tokyo and a Ph. D. in Economics from the University of Tokyo.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

‘Dr Rocket’: Itokawa Hideo and the Reconstitution of Masculinity

Date
Friday, 6 Aug 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Subodhana Wijeyeratne Associate Professor, Tokyo Woman's Christian University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Aeronautical engineer Itokawa Hideo (1912–1999) has long been regarded as the ‘father’ of Japanese rocketry. He was important enough that when naming the asteroid visited by their trailblazing Hayabusa mission in 2003, the Japanese Space Exploration Agency settled on the name ‘Itokawa.’ This apotheosis occurred in the context of Itokawa’s elevation into the ‘father figure’ of the Japanese space program – a position akin to that held by Konstantin Tsiolovski and Wernher von Braun in the United States and Soviet Union space efforts. The manner in which these figures are remembered and presented publicly reveals details about how modern societies engage with not only individuals, but notions of progress and technological modernity they represent. Itokawa’s career shows us that the authority and public personae of father figures are intimately tied up with notions of masculinity and authority that are prevalent in their social milieux. In the case of Itokawa, his career encompassed both attempts are reclaiming the masculine status denied to him and his colleagues by Japan’s defeat in the Second World War, while at the same time exploring idiosyncratic modes of ‘scientific’ renovation for elements of masculinity he thought were no longer relevant to the modern world. At the same time, Itokawa – particularly in his later career – proposed alterations to conventional Japanese gender relations in which ‘science’ and ‘objectivity’ were used to alter social expectations of both men and women. This presentation will explore Itokawa’s writings and opinions on both men and women to explore how he extended his patriarchal authority well beyond the remit of engineering.

About the Speaker

Subodhana Wijeyeratne is associate professor in the English Department at Tokyo Women’s Christian University. He completed his PhD at Harvard University in 2020, focusing on the history of the Japanese space program. His interests include the history of science in Asia, the history of technology, and the social and cultural impact of technological change. He is also a published author, with over twenty short stories in print. His first collection of short stories, ‘Tales from the Stone Lotus,’ and novel, ‘The Slixes’, are currently in print.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Japanese University Students’ Critique on the Hiring Process of Firms

Date
Friday, 9 July 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Naoki Iguchi Lecturer, Department of Social Information, Faculty of Studies on Contemporary Society, Mejiro University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Selection by a person’s non-cognitive features is common in companies’ hiring process. There have been criticism that it leads to the applicants’ self-blame, or that it plays a role in the reproduction of inequality. However, these critique have not always led to change in the selection process. This presentation aims to describe the lived experiences of youth in such circumstances. Also it aims to clarify the effects that critique can have in such difficult circumstances. This presentation focuses on the critique of the job searchers themselves by drawing on interview data. He will show the types of critique, the difficulties they experienced on making an acceptable public claim, and how they responded privately, through the selection of companies.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Mental Health Effects of Long Work Hours, Night & Weekend Work, and Short Rest Periods

Date
Friday, 2 July 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Kaori Sato Associate Professor, Faculty of Business, Kokushikan University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Although the prior literature has examined the relationship between work schedule characteristics and worker mental health, establishing the causal effect of work schedule characteristics is challenging because of endogeneity issues. This paper investigates how various work schedule characteristics affect workers’ mental health using employee surveys and actual working hours recorded over seventeen months in a Japanese manufacturing company. Our sample includes 1334 white-collar workers and 786 blue-collar workers observed from 2015 to 2016. Our major findings are as follows: long working hours cause the mental health of white-collar workers to deteriorate even after controlling for individual fixed effects. Furthermore, working on weekends is associated with mental ill health—the negative effect of an hour increase in weekend work is one and a half to two times larger than that of weekday overtime work for white-collar workers. On the other hand, short rest periods are not associated with mental health for them. Our results indicate that taking a relatively long rest period on weekends is more important for keeping white-collar workers healthy than ensuring a sufficient daily rest period.Regarding blue-collar workers, our analysis reveals that working after midnight is associated with mental ill health, whereas short rest periods are not associated with their mental health. This suggests that the strain of night work is a more important determinant of mental health for blue-collar workers. The differences in the relationship between work schedule characteristics and workers’ mental health for white-collar and blue-collar workers can be explained in terms of different work styles, different expectations, and different degrees of selection. We conclude that working for long hours or irregular hours deteriorates the mental health of workers but its impact is likely to differ significantly across job types.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Of Text and Bronze: Courtiers, Casters, and Social Status in Medieval Japan

Date
Friday, 25 June 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Paula Curtis Postdoctral Associate, Council on East Asian Studies, Yale University
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Event Description

The image of medieval Japan is often that of the warrior, with little attention paid to the producers, traders, and other humdrum individuals that provisioned people of all statuses, from agricultural laborers to emperors and their contemporaries. This talk brings into focus the activities of lower court nobility and metal casting artisan organizations, those who negotiated and supplied the crucial resources that kept elite events and everyday life functioning in premodern society. Focusing on the imperial court reveals how Matsugi Hisanao, a low-ranking courtier, reestablished lapsed patronage relationships with metal casters in the later sixteenth century. His pursuit of transregional business relations with casters and their provincial overlords was built upon a long legacy of economic and social privileges enjoyed by casters as purveyors of goods and services to the elite. And yet, much more than simple laborers, a close examination of caster prerogatives and modes of identification in text about them and metal objects by them reveals the permeability and fluidity of social status in medieval Japanese society, as well as how the labor of some of its least visible figures in and beyond the court were critical to the longevity of its most iconic institutions of authority.

About the Speaker

Dr. Paula R. Curtis is a historian of medieval Japan. She is presently a Postdoctoral Associate and Lecturer in History at Yale University with the Council on East Asian Studies. Her current book project focuses on metal caster organizations from the twelfth to sixteenth centuries and their relationships with elite institutions. She also works on the history of documentary forgery in premodern Japan.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

The Switch to Cashless Payments: Evidence from Japan’s Point Reward Program

Date
Friday, 18 June 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Toshiaki Shoji Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Seikei University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

This paper uses credit card transaction data and examines the impact of Japan’s point reward program for cashless payments. The main findings are as follows. First, the program increased the payment amount by 48-64 percent and the number of card users by 16-18 percent. Second, these impacts persisted even during the COVID-19 outbreak in April and May 2020 and after the program (in July 2020). Third, the program had larger impacts on firms that introduced payment machines after the program started than those already had payment machines.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Why Does Non-regular Work Delay Marriage? A Role of Income and Job Characteristics across Relationship Status in Japan

Date
Friday, 4 June 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Ryota Mugiyama Associate Professor, Department of Political Studies, Gakushuin University
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Event Description

Marriage timing has been delayed in parallel with the rise in non-regular employment in developed countries. However, little is known about why non-regular work is associated with delayed marriage. In addition, how the influence of non-regular work matters across different relationship status is still unclear. Using nationally representative panel survey data from Japan, we test two explanations––lack of economic independence and bad nonpecuniary job qualities––for why non-regular work is associated with delayed marriage across different relationship status. Considering differential expectation on breadwinner role, analyses are separately conducted by men and women. The results show that the association between non-regular work and delayed marriage is partly explained by lower income rather than worse job qualities. For men, lower income explains both the delayed formation of romantic relationship and the transition from romantic relationship to first marriage. For women, lower income has opposite mediating effect by different relationship status: the lower income delayed non-regular workers’ formation of romantic relationship but prompt their transition from romantic relationship to first marriage. Although worse job qualities are significantly associated with the transition to marriage, they do not explain the effect of non-regular work for either men or women.

About the Speaker

Ryota Mugiyama is Associate Professor at Department of Political Studies, Gakushuin University, Japan. He has received his doctoral degree (sociology) in 2019 at the University of Tokyo, Japan. His research focuses on labor market inequality and life course. His other recent work includes intragenerational mobility, gender inequality, and employment trajectories around childbirth.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Public Perceptions of Citizenship and Migration in Japan

Date
Friday, 28 May 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Is migration a plausible option in combating aging and shrinking population in countries with a strong emphasis on ethnic homogeneity? What kind of policies would be ideal to realize a multicultural society in such countries? To answer these questions, this presentation explores Japanese people’s views on citizenship (who qualifies as “Japanese?”) and migration (what kind of migrants are more favored?). Based on original survey results, it aims to provide evidence to influence policy discussions in regard to the recent debate over labor migrants in Japan. Specifically, it points out limitations with the current one-way assimilationist approaches pursued by the Japanese government and suggests a consolidation of social integration policies for both Japanese natives (i.e., recognizing and appreciating cultural diversities) and incoming migrants (i.e., understanding Japanese language and culture).

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Inundating or Absorbed?

Date
Friday, 21 May 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Naoko Hosokawa Postdoctoral Fellow, Tokyo College, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Is the Japanese language inundated by loanwords? Or is it enriching itself by absorbing foreign vocabulary? We often hear such discussions in contemporary Japan. But why does this topic attract so much interest? This presentation is about her examination of public discussions on lexical borrowing. Through an analysis of recurrent wordings in the debates, she will shed light on an implicit contrast between ‘national’ and ‘foreign’ hidden in the metalinguistic discourse.

About the Speaker

Naoko Hosokawa is a postdoctoral fellow at Tokyo College, the University of Tokyo. She holds a D.Phil degree in Oriental Studies from the University of Oxford. Her fields of research include sociolinguistics and media textual analysis. She is interested in the question of language and identity with a particular focus on loanwords, metaphors, and language education.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Counterintuitive Effects of Restrictive Migration Policies

Date
Friday, 14 May 2021 | 9:15 - 10:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Hilary Holbrow Assistant Professor, Dept of East Asian Languages and Cultures, Indiana University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Ostensibly, Japan’s Technical Intern Training Program (TITP) brings interns from developing countries to Japan to learn advanced skills in manufacturing, construction, and agricultural firms. In reality, interns work menial jobs and receive little transferable training. But although COVID has underscored and magnified the vulnerable position of program participants, even the global pandemic has not laid bare the broader societal costs of TITP, which ultimately countermand the aims of the program and its proponents.

About the Speaker

Hilary J. Holbrow is Assistant Professor of Japanese Politics and Society. A sociologist by training, her scholarship examines social and economic inequality, work and organizations, immigration, and the intersections of gender, race, and ethnicity. She is an International Research Fellow at the Canon Institute for Global Studies in Tokyo, an Associate in Research at Harvard’s Reischauer Institute, and a member of the US-Japan Network for the Future.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Apology in Foreign Policy Why an Apology is made by a State

Date
Friday, 9 April 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Asako Takashima Project Researcher, Institute for Advanced Global Studies, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

As the history problem became an issue for Japanese foreign policy since around 1990, the issue started to be targeted academically. Many studies have laid focus on the concept of apology. However, an apology which is accepted by an apologized country can be different according to situations. Thus, the question should not be which apology is accepted or not, but why an apologizing country would make an apology even when it may not be accepted. To answer these questions, this paper will shed light on how the Japanese government apologized to other countries from the viewpoint of political narrative. A detailed analysis of the Japanese Prime Ministers’ annual greetings on 15th August at the Memorial Ceremony of the War Dead and the Prime Ministers’ talks (Danwa) which are presented around 15th August regarding the anniversary of the end of the War will allow us to understand why an apology is made or not.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Ageing and Population Decline Implications for Sustainability in the Urban Century in Japan & Globally

Date
Friday, 2 April 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Marcin Pawel Jarzebski Project Assistant Professor, Tokyo College, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Takeo Hoshi Professor, Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Currently many parts of the world, especially urbanized countries, experience a major demographic transition characterized by an ageing and declining population, and Japan is one of the most rapidly going through this process. The ageing and declining population bring tremendous challenges for societies but also it provides opportunities for a positive changed towards more sustainable societies. The purpose of this presentation is to rationalize this interface by (a) identifying the challenges and opportunities that ageing and declining urban populations will have for implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and (b) identifying some emerging interventions to capitalize on the opportunities and reduce the challenges. Far from only posing only challenges, ageing and population shrinking can offer opportunities for many SDG targets. It is important to employ various technological, socioeconomic, institutional and governance interventions to leverage the opportunities and minimize the risks that the ageing and shrinking of urban populations will pose for long-term sustainability.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

How Elastic is Capacity Choice in Welfare Facilities?
Evidence from Notches in Japan’s Childcare Subsidy Scheme

Date
Friday, 19 March 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Fukai Taiyo Economic and Social Research Institute & UTokyo Graduate School of Economics
Moderator
  • Daiji Kawaguchi Professor, Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Many countries are struggling to provide childcare services to help people balance work and family life, but the focus has tended to be on building new facilities rather than making more effective use of existing facilities. In this study, we estimated the critical structural parameters for the supply of childcare services and conducted policy simulations by scrutinizing the institutional design of public childcare services in Japan. Specifically, we focused on the amount of money each facility receives per child admitted, or the unit cost of childcare, which is funded by a combination of government subsidies and user fees. As this amount decreases discontinuously with the size of the facility, this creates an incentive for facilities to not increase their size any further, which causes facilities to bunch at a threshold. This degree of bunching has information that allows us to identify structural parameters that specify how elastic the supply of capacity is to the unit cost. Policy simulations using this model show that it is possible to expand the supply of childcare centers without increasing the burden on either government or users by eliminating these discontinuities. This result provides a new perspective on the usefulness of identifying key production parameters and optimizing the existing infrastructure, rather than only considering the construction of new facilities.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Time and Space in Japanese Concepts of Mental Lexicon and Strategies of Description

Date
Friday, 12 March 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Maria Telegina Postdoctoral Fellow, Tokyo College, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

My research is focused on the perception and expression of time and space concepts in contemporary Japanese. Through the frameworks of cognitive linguistics and cognitive semantics, it examines material obtained through a set of experiments with Japanese native speaking participants – a free word association experiment and spontaneous speech experiments on temporal and on spatial description strategies.
Network analysis of the materials obtained through the free word association experiment revealed that time and space concepts are most closely related to the concepts of emotional evaluation, family/human relations, and work.

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the corpora based on the material of the spontaneous speech experiments allowed me to formulate typologies of temporal and spatial description strategies in Japanese.

The findings of my study demonstrate that some of the strategies of extended spatial and temporal description seen in Japanese native speakers have not been described in research conducted on more extensively investigated languages. In this presentation, I am going to further elaborate on typologies of description and features of temporal and spatial domains of the Japanese mental lexicon.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Cluster, Capital, Community of Practice Re-examining the Relationship between Art Networks and Place

Date
Friday, 5 March 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Pan Mengfei Research Associate, Graduate School of International Management, Aoyama Gakuin
Event Description

This presentation examines the relationship between art networks and geographic place from the perspective of art sociology. Through employing concepts such as “art network”, “cultural capital”, “social capital”, and “community of practice”, it investigates mainly the situation in modern Tokyo from the Meiji Period and analyzes the phenomenon of artist clusters, their motivations, actual benefits, and the impact on the places from the clusters. Drawing research from art history and urban studies, this presentation not only reveals the significance of place for the art networks but also argues for an expansion of research scope to envision the place as an agency to better understand the art collectivity in contemporary Japan.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Job-Hunting Among 2nd Generation Immigrants in Japan

Date
Friday, 26 February 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Takahashi Fumiko Project Lecturer, Komaba Organization for Educational Excellence, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Misako Nukaga Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

In this presentation, I will explore the transition from education to the labor market for second-generation immigrants and refugees in Japan – individuals who have one or both parents are migrated to Japan or who were born in Japan or migrated to Japan in their early teens -. The challenges that the second generation of immigrants experience at the transition from university/graduate school to the labor market in Japan seem to stem partly from insufficient recognition of their existence by companies, as well as structural factors. I will present the result of the case studies of the three people who have migrated to Japan as refugees and are now working in domestic companies and will discuss the factors behind the obstacles toward racial equity at the transition from education to the labor market.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Wild Boar Chase Half-Life Politics of Nuclear Things, and a Multispecies Collaboration of Contamination & Containment in Coastal Fukushima

Date
Friday, 19 February 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Ryo Morimoto Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Princeton University
Moderator
  • Takeo Hoshi Professor, Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

In this talk, I examine the half-life politics of nuclear things by focusing on local residents’ uncanny encounters with wild boars in their abandoned homes. Lurking out of the deep woods, boars have conquered the evacuated land that the government has been using to store decontaminated waste. But local residents have come to identify these nemeses of civilization as surrogate bodies that are metaphorically linked with their own bodies, using the boars to imagine a potential life in their now-unfamiliar radioactive hometown. At the same time, as decontamination efforts progress, locals come to see the hunting down and disposal of boars—a process that transforms the boars from irradiated life to radioactive waste—as the contradictory emblem of recovery. Tracing the wild boars’ lives and deaths in relation to people’s shifting conceptualization of “nature,” “contamination” and “safety” illustrates local residents’ struggles to resist the banal physiological and psychological violence that low-dose radiation exposure has imposed on their sense of wellbeing, and their efforts to negotiate an alternative ecological future of the aftermath.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

“Social Management” for Personal Data Protection

Date
Friday, 12 February 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Zhang Weiyu Project Research Associate, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Tamaruya Masayuki Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

The rules of privacy and personal data protection have experienced two major changes due to the epoch-making technologies: Internet and AI. Those changes bring two contradictions for personal data management: individual rights vs. weakness for them to control, and the huge demand for data vs. high cost and isolation phenomenon.
Realizing the above contradictions, this presentation will explore “social management” mechanism as supplement to the current personal data protection. By referring to “social management”, it propose to introduce social power independent from individuals and third party data users to protect and manage personal data. With its centralized management and professional knowledge, social management mechanism allows effective protection of personal data and reduces the cost of large-scale data collections.
Although this method has not been widely applied, many Asian jurisdictions have made relevant explorations like establishing specialized organizations to collect and manage data, or regulation systems targeted to data collectors and users. This presentation will introduce relevant practices in Japan, China, and India to explore the structure of social management mechanisms and key aspects of the implementation process.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

A Quest for Equality International Connections in Japan’s Space Program, 1950 – 2003

Date
Friday, 5 February 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Subodhana Wijeyeratne Lecturer, Faculty of Business & Commerce, Keio University
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Event Description

Despite its considerable independent accomplishments – such as the extraordinary Hayabusa probes – international links have been a core to the development of the Japanese space program. One of the crucial elements of this is story of its gradual alienation from the United States. From 1954 to the 1980s, Japan’s space aspirations were intimately connected to the assistance their former conquerors could provide. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, strategic and economic priorities led to the US limiting technology exports. The Japanese also began to experience major frustrations with American assistance – which, combined with recovering national confidence in the context of an economic boom, impelled them to branch out to other countries for space cooperation, while reducing their reliance on the USA. These tensions were made manifest in the American-led destruction of Japan’s indigenous satellite industry in the late 1980s, which served to alienate many within Japan’s space industry. As a result, in the 1990s and 2000s, Japan pursued relations with a variety of other partners, as a way of both securing markets and information they’d otherwise be denied, and in order to bolster their position as a major space power. The end result of these trends is the contemporary formation of the Japanese space program, as manifest in JAXA – an institution with intimate links with American space technology, that nonetheless pursues a variety of similar links with countries from Ghana to Germany.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

The Formation and Development of the Japan Agricultural Cooperatives

Date
Friday, 29 January 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Kawaguchi Hirofumi Project Researcher, UTokyo Graduate Schools for Law & Politics
Moderator
  • Tamaruya Masayuki Professor, Graduate Schools for Law and Politics, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Political scientists have analyzed how war contributes to state formation and development. In a defeated country, however, such a wartime legacy is difficult to inherit due to a postwar regime change. To understand how this difficulty is overcome, Japan after WWII, which experienced the drastic reform under the postwar occupation by the United States, is analyzed here. As an example of a wartime legacy that was not eliminated despite the postwar reform, this work focuses on farmers’ organization in 20th-century Japan. Beginning with the prewar era, I examine the government mobilization of farmers during WWII and its inheritance to Japan Agricultural Cooperatives (JA), which has been the most politically influential and widely organized farmers’ group in contemporary Japan. I also analyze its development in the 1950s and 60s. Delving into the wartime institution’s survival leads to finding that two factors had a positive influence. The first factor is the farmers’ group’s relationship with political actors outside the government, such as opposition parties and other farmers’ groups. The second factor is the efforts of the farmers’ group to achieve its member’s loyalty. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of a wartime legacy’s survival. It also has implications on studies in Japanese politics, reconsidering the literature’s assumption of JA’s close relationship with the Liberal Democratic Party and shedding light on hitherto neglected non-economic aspects of JA.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Technologies of Seeing Visualization & Archives in Japan

Date
Friday, 22 January 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Steven Braun Visiting Assistant Professor, College of Arts & Media Design, Northeastern University
Event Description

In this presentation, I’ll discuss the relationship between data visualization and archives as “technologies of seeing”: both are technologies that make choices about what can or should be rendered visible in the eyes of others. In visualization, we make design choices about what data to collect, how to analyze them, and how to express them through visual encodings, and these choices determine whose voices or identities get privileged or displaced in public discourses. Likewise, in the creation of archives, choices must often be made about what to preserve, how to preserve, and how to make that which is preserved accessible over space and time. As such, both visualization and archives are practices of design that are tightly wrapped up in questions of seeing; each can offer lessons to one another about what it means to document and bear witness to the world around us, especially at a time when “crises of seeing” threaten our individual and collective well-being. This discussion will be explored through projects that interrogate the role of visualization and archives in the study of Japan, particularly as a country situated in a world in trauma, transition, and uncertainty.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

The Emergence of Modern Humanitarian Activities: The Evolution of Japanese Red Cross Movement from Local to Global

Date
Friday, 15 January 2021 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Michiko Suzuki Project Researcher, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Kenneth McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

The history of the founding and the early years of the Japanese Red Cross Society (JRCS) revise the conventional and reductionist view of the Red Cross movement in Japan as simply a cultural import from the West and a top-down movement directed by the Meiji government.

This research argues that from the beginning, native Japanese traditions of humanitarianism expressed in the modern Japanese notion of humanitarianism (jindō: 人道), literally meaning ‘the way of humanity’ infused the ethos of the JRCS. It also argues that while at the national level the JRCS enjoyed the patronage of the Imperial Family, organizationally it developed into a strong grassroots movement that expanded its activities beyond the ICRC’s mission of providing medical aid to combatant in international conflicts. The rapid growth of the JRCS was made possible by the involvement of ordinary people in humanitarian activities in the form of self-reliant efforts to survive social uncertainties such as poverty, natural disasters, epidemic diseases, and civil wars brought about by the Meiji Restoration. By responding to local humanitarian crises as well as assisting the nation in Japan’s foreign wars, the JRCS tapped into ordinary Japanese people’s communitarianism and patriotism and the Society experienced a dramatic increase in the membership to more than 2 million members in 1920, emerging as by far the world’s largest National Red Cross Society.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Broadband Internet and Labor Market Consequences

Date
Friday, 4 December 2020 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Muroga Kiho Associate Professor, Graduate School of Economics, Kyushu University
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Event Description

This paper estimates the effects of internet penetration on labor force participation, hours worked, employment status and wage. We found that internet penetration increases the probability of labor force participation. Our estimates also show that internet penetration is associated with a substantial increase in wage, especially for males. In addition, non-college-graduated groups are highly affected by internet penetration for both men and women. Those results suggest that internet penetration helps encourage more labor force participation because of an increase in wages.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Multidisciplinary Collaborations for Sustainable Solutions

Date
Friday, 20 November 2020 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Flora Weil Multidisciplinary Designer & Researcher, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Toya Riina Project Associate Professor, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

Multidisciplinary collaborations and design thinking are two methods that can help develop innovative ideas, especially when it comes to responding to complex topics such as sustainability. Two projects, Dust to Dust and Probes, developed as collaborations between DLX Design Lab and Sakai Lab and Yagi Lab respectively will be presented to exemplify this approach. These two projects were carried out as part of a series of UTokyo collaborations supported by Toyoshima, centred around the topic of sustainability.

Early-Career Scholar Forum

Diverse Paths into First Childbirth and Socio-Economic Differentials in Japan

Date
Friday, 13 November 2020 | 12:15 - 13:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Mogi Ryohei Postdoctoral Researcher, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Event Description

This talk will discuss how paths into first childbirth (i.e., the sequence of engagement, cohabitation, pregnancy and marriage) have become more diverse in Japan over the decades, as well as how these paths are influenced by socio-economic inequalities.