Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Female Managers and the Gender Wage Gap: Workgroup Gender Composition Matters

Date
Thursday, 30 September 2021 | 9:00am - 10:00am (JST)
Venue
Language
English
Speakers
  • Young-Mi Kim Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Yonsei University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Women’s representation in managerial positions is a common metric for gender equity in organizations. Whether female managers improve gender equity among their subordinates is, however, less clear. Drawing on rich longitudinal personnel data from a large Korean food company, we provide new insight into this question by focusing attention on key micro-contexts for interaction and relational politics within organizations: workgroups. Building on social-psychological theories about in-group preference and value threats, we theorize that workgroup gender composition conditions the relationship between supervisor gender and gender earnings differentials with them. Results from regression models with workgroup fixed effects confirm this insight. Female supervisors are associated with smaller gender earnings gaps when workgroups are male-dominated, but gender wage gaps widen under female supervision as teams become more female-dominated.

About the Speaker

Young-Mi Kim is an Associate Professor of Sociology at Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. Her main area of research is gender inequality in the labor market, organization, and family. Her work has been focused on revealing the unique characteristics of gender inequality in Korea and East Asia in the context of labor market segmentation. Recently, her interest moved to the organization side and she investigates organizational mechanisms of gender inequality in various dimensions using personnel data. She is also a PI of a research project funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRFK) to investigate how social inequality and demographic changes are linked through family dynamics.

Conferences

HMC-TCJS Joint Seminar Series Facing the Shadow of Death – Management and Literature in Modern Japan

Date
Friday, 27 August 2021 | 17:30pm - 19:30pm (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
Japanese
Speakers
  • Takashi Shimizu Professor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Mareshi Saito Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
Event Description

In the process of modernization, many people were separated from their families or rural communities they belonged to, and became independent and autonomous individuals. At the same time, because of the rapid expansion of industrialization, they had to live a life within an organization – such as the government, companies or the military.

On the one hand, this brought a new problem of how they could find their organizations. On the other hand, conflicts between individuals and their organizations also took place. Especially, in a society under the shadow of death – that is, a society where people are exposed to the risk of death caused by, for example, the Spanish flu, tuberculosis or other kinds of infectious diseases – those problems of whether people can be affiliated and how they can live a good life in an organization were much important.

In this seminar, we will talk about how people dealt with such problems in areas of management and literature – which are often regarded as far distant areas – by using the example of modern Japan. We will also discuss how we can connect management and literature.

About the Speaker

Takashi Shimizu (Ph.D. in economics, The University of Tokyo) is Professor of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo. He is a scholar of management and business history who is specialized in corporate systems and interactions between legal systems and corporate behaviors. Recently he published a book titled “感染症と経営:戦前日本企業は「死の影」といかに 向き合ったか (Infectious Diseases and Management: How Japanese Companies coped with the Shadow of Death before WWII)” from Chuo-Keizaisha Publishing.

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series “Women’s Empowerment” Policy Trends & Remaining Issues: Lessons from the Little Women Project

Date
Wednesday, 7 July 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
Japanese
Speakers
  • Atsuko Muraki Guest Professor, Tsuda University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

Amidst falling birth rates, an aging population, and an accompanying deterioration in public finances, the Japanese government is placing greater importance on policies that empower women as “labour force,” and support children/childcare (nurturing the labour force of the future). These policies require transformations in how men work and participate in the household, as well as in how firms manage their workers. This talk will review these latest trends in policy, and introduce the oft-overlooked challenges faced by girls and young women who have yet to reach the “startline” envisioned by women’s empowerment. In particular, I will draw on the issues revealed by the work of the Little Women Project – an organization which supports struggling girls and young women.

About the Speaker

Atsuko Muraki is a guest Professor at Tsuda University. In 1978, she joined the Ministry of Labour (now Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare), where she was in charge of Policy Divisions for women and the disabled. In 2009, she was arrested on charges that she was involved in a postage fraud scandal, but she was found not guilty. She returned to her position in the government, and in 2013, she became Vice Minister of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, who was the second woman in this position. She retired from the ministry in 2015. Today, she is the co-founder of the Little Women Project, which supports struggling young women. She is also an outside director for the Itochu Corporation. Her publications include: 『あきらめない』(日本経済新聞出版社)、『日本型組織の病を考える』(角川書店)

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Japan’s Work-Life Balance Reconsidered

Date
Wednesday, 26 May 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar  REGISTER HERE
Zoom access link will be provided after registration.
Language
English
Speakers
  • Machiko Osawa Professor Emeritus, Japan Women’s University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

The Covid-19 pandemic is accentuating the gender gap and existing divides between regular and non-regular workers, large and small firms and various sectors of the economy. In my talk, I would like to discuss the impact of the pandemic on gender differences in Japan, and various factors that are amplifying these differences.

Japanese society is still organized around the breadwinner system of full-time male workers providing for their families while their wives focus on caring for the family. This gender division of labor and patriarchal ideology is embodied in the employment system of regular and non-regular workers in which women are disproportionately represented in the latter category, entailing disadvantages in pay, security and training. The assumption that women are supplemental earners confronts the reality where most households are dependent on both incomes and there is an increasing number of single parent households due to rising divorce rates. Moreover, the never married population is increasing. The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the persistent gender division of labor as hundreds of thousands of working mothers gave up their jobs to cope with school lockdown measures and found it hard to return to work in the midst of a recession. In addition, women have lost jobs because they tend to be employed in sectors that have been hard hit by the outbreak. Teleworking offers the possibility of juggling work and home responsibilities, but this has been largely unrealized because many firms bar teleworking for non-regular workers and women are often in jobs that require a physical presence. Teleworking may not be a panacea but is likely to expand, raising questions about how this flexibility can benefit households and women’s career prospects.

About the Speaker

Machiko Osawa holds a Ph.D in economics from Southern Illinois University. Currently she is Professor emeritus and specially appointed to the researcher, the Research Institute for Women and Careers at Japan Women’s University. She served on Advisory Boards of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor, Prime Minister’s Gender Equality Bureau, and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. She is also author of various books such as Economic Change and Women Workers: Japan U.S. Comparison (1993, Nihon-Keizai Hyoronsha, Received Kagami Book Award), Economics of New Family (Chuo Koron Shinsya, 1998), Non-Standard Work in Developed Economies (ed. with Susan houseman, Upjohn Institute, 2003), Towards Work-Life Balance Society(Iwanami, 2006),and Work-Life Synergy (Iwanami, 2008), Japan’s Working Poor (Iwanami,2010), When Housewives Return to the Labor Market-Towards Second Chance Society (NTT Shuppan, 2012) What’s Holding Back Japanese Women, (Tokyo Keizai Shinposya, 2015) Women and Work in the 21stcentury, (Sayusya, 2018) Why There are so Few Women Managers in the Japanese Workplace, (Seikyusya, 2019).

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Why Gender Inequality in Japan is Alive and Well

Date
Tuesday, 11 May 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Mary C. Brinton Reischauer Institute Professor of Sociology, Harvard University
Event Description

Japan ranks very low on every measure of gender equality used by the OECD and other international organizations, including the yearly “gender gap index” published by the World Economic Forum. In 2006, the first year the index was published, Japan ranked 79 out of 115 countries in gender equality. Fifteen years later, Japan’s relative position had declined to 120 out of 156. Standardized across years, the country’s ranking declined from 69 out of 100 in 2006 to 77 in 2021. This latest ranking puts Japan’s level of gender equality below that of many less-wealthy countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Why has Japan’s high level of gender inequality shown such stubborn persistence over time? In this talk I examine the misguided policy attempts to “make women shine” and argue for the importance of a paradigm shift in the analysis of Japanese gender inequality.

Conferences

Gender in Japan Series Married Japanese Salarywomen’s Strategies for Maintaining Careers and Well-Being in the 2000s

Date
Wednesday, 24 March 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Glenda Roberts Professor, Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University
Moderator
  • Sawako Shirahase TCJS Director
Event Description

This talk will focus on a question I asked in my 2019 Japan Focus publication, ‘Leaning Out for the Long Span,’ asking, how do women in ordinary career positions maintain both their careers and their well-being when their husbands are rarely able to substantially contribute to childrearing and domestic management? I will discuss the building a career over the long span of marriage and childrearing, and the choices ordinary salary women make not to lean in too far, while enlisting intergenerational support in order to manage their family lives. While such strategies may not propel married women into the ranks of upper management, they are survival strategies while the children are growing up. Will these strategies evolve as companies are pressured to increase the percentage of women in management under Womenomics policies? How much are neo-liberal notions of career-building and self-responsibility affecting Japanese salarywomen? Data come from a longitudinal set of fourteen women in the same Tokyo corporation, whom I have been interviewing at 3-5 year intervals since 2003.

Conferences

UTokyo x Princeton Demography & Inequality in East Asia Series Should We Discuss East Asian Demographics using a Social-Stratification Framework?

Date
Wednesday, 17 March 2021 | 9:00 – 10:30 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Hiroshi Ishida University Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology and Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
  • Yu Xie Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Sociology and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies
Time Table
9:00 - 9:05
Opening Remarks
Speaker
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology and Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University
9:05 - 9:20
Social Change and Social Inequality in Japan
Speaker
  • Hiroshi Ishida University Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo

This presentation discusses significant societal changes including industrialization and changes in class structure and demographic transformation and their relationships to social inequality in postwar Japan. It will examine how societal changes affected the opportunities of educational attainment and social mobility.

9:20 - 9:35
Changing Family Demography & Inequality Within and Across Generations
Speaker
  • James Raymo Professor of Sociology and Henry Wendt III ’55 Professor of East Asian Studies, Princeton University

Profound family change in Japan, including rising rates of divorce, bridal pregnancy, remarriage, lifelong singlehood and increasing variance in age at marriage and childbirth, raises important questions about the implications of these changes for inequality. To what extent are emerging family behaviors associated with educational attainment and other well-established dimensions of social and economic inequality? To what extent are they associated with individual well-being, particularly that of children? To what extent do these changes in family formation shape inequality across the life course, especially at older ages? High-quality social survey data, in conjunction with compelling theory, allow us to begin answering these important questions.

9:35 - 9:50
Social Inequality & the Economic Well-Being of the Elderly in Rapidly-Aging Japan
Speaker
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo

Japan is the most aged society in the world. The speed at which Japan’s population has aged is one of the most important characteristics of its demographic transformation since World War II. Shirahase will present the basic statistics on this trend with regard to economic and gender inequality, as well as the family structure. She will also highlight inclusiveness as a potentially critical concept for linking social empirical evidence on inequality with policy debates.

9:50 - 10:05
The Impact of Economic Inequality on Social and Demographic Outcomes in China
Speaker
  • Yu Xie Bert G. Kerstetter '66 University Professor of Sociology and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies

In this presentation, Professor Yu Xie first documents a sharp rise in economic inequality in contemporary China, drawing on newly available survey data collected by several Chinese university survey organizations. He then presents results from his research program on the impact of rising economic inequality on a variety of social and demographic outcomes in China: intergenerational mobility, mortality, marriage age, marriage partner choice, and fertility.

10:05 - 10:25
Audience Q&A
Speaker
  • Sawako Shirahase Professor, Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, The University of Tokyo
Conferences

UTokyo × Waseda Political Science Colloquium

Date
Monday, 1 March 2021 | 12:30 - 14:30 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English
Speakers
  • Rieko KAGE Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
  • Antonio Benasaglio BERLUCCHI Graduate School of Political Science, Waseda University
Moderator
  • Yuriko TAKAHASHI Faculty of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University
  • Takeshi ITO Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Conferences

Gender in Japan Series 「日本のジェンダー格差、なぜ解消しないのか」

Date
Monday, 22 February 2021 | 9:00 - 10:00 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinarr
Language
Japanese
Speakers
  • Ueno Chizuko Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo & Director, Women's Action Network
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Event Description

We have spent a year in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Times of crisis tend not to bring forth new and unprecedented change, but rather to exacerbate and amplify the familiar contradictions of everyday life. It has been those women who were already in dire straits to begin with who have felt this burden most keenly. How can a country have the world’s third largest GDP, and yet rank 121st in gender equality? This is a puzzle–and a problem–for Japanese society. By the same token, it is a puzzle–and a problem–that the University of Tokyo’s ratio of female student enrollment cannot break past 20%, even though we live in an age when four-year college enrollment rates for both men and women are about 50%. I look forward to this discussion with my former colleague Shirahase Sawako (who also serves as a UTokyo executive vice president), particularly given her speedy submission of an emergency proposal to the Japanese government as the chair of its「コロナ下の女性への影響と課題に関する研究会」.

About the Speaker
Chizuko Ueno

Chizuko Ueno is a sociologist. She holds a Doctorate in Sociology from Kyoto University. In 1993, she became an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Tokyo. From 1995 until 2011, she was a Professor at the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Humanities & Sociology. In 2011, she became director of the non-profit Women’s Action Network (WAN). She served as a member of the 20th–22nd Science Councils of Japan, and as an affiliate member for the 23rd–25th councils. Ueno specializes in women’s studies and gender studies, and has also done research on elder care.

Conferences

UTokyo x Waseda Political Science Colloquium

Date
Tuesday, 14 January 2021 | 12:30 - 14:30 (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
Japanese
Speakers
  • Asano Rui Waseda University・Graduate School of Political Science
  • Hoshiro Hiroyuki University of Tokyo・Institute of Social Science
  • Kaneko Tomoki University of Tokyo・Graduate School of Law and Politics
  • Kohno Masaru Waseda University・Institute of Political Economy
Time Table
12:30 - 13:30
「国連平和維持活動の派遣パターン:紛争単位と国内行政区画単位の分析」
Speaker
  • Asano Rui Waseda University・Graduate School of Political Science
Discussant
  • Hoshiro Hiroyuki University of Tokyo・Institute of Social Science
13:30 - 14:30
「新聞の左右イデオロギーと有権者の投票行動:戦後日本の地域別新聞普及状況の分析」
Speaker
  • Kaneko Tomoki University of Tokyo・Graduate School of Law and Politics
Discussant
  • Kohno Masaru Waseda University・Institute of Political Economy
  • UTokyo Center for Japanese Studies
  • Institute of Social Science, University of Tokyo
  • Waseda Institute of Political Economy
Conferences

Japanese Politics in the 21st Century: UTokyo x Waseda Political Science Colloquium

Date
Wednesday, 16 December 2020 | 9:00 - Noon (JST)
Venue
Zoom Webinar
Language
English & Japanese
Speakers
  • Makoto Gonokami President, The University of Tokyo
  • Aiji Tanaka President, Waseda University
  • Masaru Kohno Professor, Faculty of Political Science & Economics, Waseda University
  • Akira Inoue Professor, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, The University of Tokyo
  • Airo Hino Professor, Faculty of Political Science & Economics, Waseda University
  • Kenneth Mori McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
Time Table
9:00 – 9:25
Introducing the Colloquium Series
Speaker
  • Makoto Gonokami President, The University of Tokyo
  • Aiji Tanaka President, Waseda University
Moderator
  • Shirahase Sawako TCJS Director
9:30 – 10:40
Political Theory & Empirical Analysis
Speaker
  • Akira Inoue Professor, Graduate School of Arts & Sciences, The University of Tokyo
  • Masaru Kohno Professor, Faculty of Political Science & Economics, Waseda University
10:45 – 11:50
Political Ideology & Values in 21st Century Japan
Speaker
  • Kenneth Mori McElwain Professor, Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
  • Airo Hino Professor, Faculty of Political Science & Economics, Waseda University
11:55 – 12:00
Closing Remarks